Muslim Women Are Not Exempt From Congregational Friday Prayers

Most Muslims believe that women are not required to pray Friday Dhuhr prayer in congregation. However, that understanding is based on the hadeeth which, as proven elsewhere in this book or in another one of my books, is an invalid source of Islamic law. The Quran in verse 62:9 makes it very clear that all believers must pray in congregation on Friday, not just men.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu’ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew. (62:9)

Notice that the above verse does not single out men. Women, obviously, can be and are also believers.

In verse 3:43, God told Mary, mother of Jesus, to prostate and bow down with those who bow down. This confirms that congregational prayer was also directed to women.

يَا مَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِي لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِي وَارْكَعِي مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
O Mary, be devoutly obedient to your Lord and prostrate and bow with those who bow [in prayer].” (3:43)

In verse 3:193, we read that people were asking God for forgiveness and salvation. In verse 3:193, God responds by saying that men and like women and that He would not allow the deeds of anyone to be lost.

فَاسْتَجَابَ لَهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ أَنِّي لَا أُضِيعُ عَمَلَ عَامِلٍ مِّنكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ ۖ بَعْضُكُم مِّن بَعْضٍ
Their Lord has answered them: ‘I will not allow the deeds of any one of you to be lost, whether you are male or female, each is like the other.’ (3:195)

Additionally, God differentiated between men and women with regards to certain issues, e.g. men receive twice the inheritance as women and two women are required to be witnesses for each male witness. Therefore, if God wanted only men to pray the Friday prayer in congregation, He could have simply stated that it was only for men.

The above verse stresses the equality of male and female when it comes to worship, and signifies that the opportunities to worship should be equal for both men and women.

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Muslim Women Are Not Exempt From Fasting, Praying, etc During Menstruation

Many Muslims believe that women are forbidden from performing any rituals of worship while menstruating, e.g.

  • No praying
  • No fasting
  • No touching the Quran
  • No reciting the Quran
  • No entering a mosque
  • No Hajj

However, there is no such restriction in the Quran. When we consider verses 3:193-195, we see that, with respect to worship, men and women are equal.

رَّبَّنَا إِنَّنَا سَمِعْنَا مُنَادِيًا يُنَادِي لِلْإِيمَانِ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِرَبِّكُمْ فَآمَنَّا ۚ رَبَّنَا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَكَفِّرْ عَنَّا سَيِّئَاتِنَا وَتَوَفَّنَا مَعَ الْأَبْرَارِرَبَّنَا وَآتِنَا مَا وَعَدتَّنَا عَلَىٰ رُسُلِكَ وَلَا تُخْزِنَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ إِنَّكَ لَا تُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ فَاسْتَجَابَ لَهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ أَنِّي لَا أُضِيعُ عَمَلَ عَامِلٍ مِّنكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ ۖ بَعْضُكُم مِّن بَعْضٍ …
Our Lord, indeed we have heard a caller calling to faith, [saying], ‘Believe in your Lord,’ and we have believed. Our Lord, so forgive us our sins and remove from us our misdeeds and cause us to die with the righteous. Our Lord, and grant us what You promised us through Your messengers and do not disgrace us on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed, You do not fail in [Your] promise.” And their Lord responded to them, “Never will I allow to be lost the deeds of [any] doer among you, whether male or female; you are of one another. … (3:193-195 part)

In verse 51:56, we see that God created humans (men and women) and jinn for no other reason but to worship Him.

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me. (51:56)

The average menstruation period lasts between 2 to 7 days per month. Therefore, a woman’s menstruation period could account for 25% of their adult life, which is most of their life. As worship is not mandatory before puberty (baligh), which, for women, is when menstruation begins, then menstruation accounts for up to 25% of a woman’s life during which worship is actually mandatory. If worship during menstruation were truly forbidden, that would be at odds with verse 51:56. Logically, it would make no sense for God to create women with the sole purpose of having them worship Him while also prohibiting them from worshipping Him for up to 25% of their life.

The Quran is clear as to what restrictions exist for each act of worship.

Prayer restrictions

According to verse 5:6, the restriction is that you may not pray until you have performed ablution. Additionally, if you are ill or on a journey or have relieved yourself or have been in physical contact with the opposite gender, and if you can’t find water, then you can perform dry ablution (tayammum).

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ ۚ وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا ۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُم مِّنْهُ …
O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves. But if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and do not find water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands with it. … (5:6 part)

In verse 4:43, we see additional prayer restrictions. Here, you are not allowed to pray while your mind is befogged (unable to focus, distracted, angry, etc) and that you must know what you are saying.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ …
O you who have believed, do not approach prayer with a mind befogged (Arabic: sukara) until you know what you are saying … (4:43)

Notice the many conditions God has specified surrounding praying in both of these verses. These would be suitable places for God to mention the restriction for menstruating women if God really didn’t want women to pray while menstruating. There is no mention anywhere in the Quran that prohibits women from praying while menstruating.

Fasting restrictions

According to verse 2:185, during the fasting month of Ramadan, if you are ill or on a journey, then you can not fast and make up for it after Ramadan by fasting for an equal number of days lost.

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ …
The month of Ramadan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. … (2:185 part)

Again, if God really wanted to restrict women from fasting during menstruation, He probably would have mentioned it in this verse. On the contrary, there is no mention anywhere in the Quran that specifically prohibits women from fasting while menstruating.

Hajj restrictions

Similarly, God has made it clear what the restrictions are regarding Hajj.

  • Verses 5:1-2, 5:95: No hunting, killing animals
  • Verse 2:217: No fighting / war
  • Verse 2:197: No sex
  • Verse 2:196: No cutting your hair

There is no restriction for menstruating women.

Similarly, there is no restriction for menstruating women from touching and reading the Quran and entering a mosque.

Menstruation vs illness

The Arabic word for menstruation (mahid) is known to the Quran and is used in two different verses (2:222, 65:4). However, this term is not mentioned in verse 2:185. The Arabic word for ‘illness’ is ‘marid’.

Some may argue that menstruation is an illness. Let’s examine this further. In verse 2:222, the Quran describes ‘menstruation’ as an ‘adha’.

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ ۖ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُوا النِّسَاءَ فِي الْمَحِيضِ
And they ask you about menstruation. Say, “It is ‘adha’, so keep away from women (your wives) during menstruation. …(2:222)

According to the Edward Lanes Lexicon, ‘adha’ means annoyance, harm, hurt, suffering or something which is disagreeable or even filthy.

However, more importantly, the Quran appears to separate illness (marid) from ‘adha’ in at least two verses:

فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ
… And whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head …(2:196)
وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ
… But there is no blame upon you, if you are troubled (adha) by rain or are ill (marda) … (4:102)

Therefore, ‘adha’ can be considered a condition that can cause annoyance, trouble, is disagreeable or hurt. Based on the verses above, ‘adha’ does not necessarily mean an illness, unless it causes hurt or harm.

Menstruation as an impurity

Some may argue that menstruation is an impurity and therefore you can’t fast. Whether it is impure or not is irrelevant when it comes to fasting. Fasting is not broken by defecation or urination (a natural occurrence as is menstruation) so why would menstruation as an impurity prohibit fasting?

Menstruation and sexual intercourse

Sexual intimacy does break the fast but such acts are based on clear volition and the Quran specifically prohibits sexual intimacy during fasting. The only thing prohibited for menstruating women is sexual intercourse (2:222) and nothing else.

Spiritual vs biological impurity

As explained above, menstruating women are only prohibited from sexual intercourse and nothing else. They are not prohibited from performing any type of worship ritual during menstruation. This makes sense since God never considers women to be spiritually impure during menstruation. On the contrary, sexual intercourse during menstruation is prohibited because it is a temporary, periodic biological impurity that could cause harm (adha).

The Bible (Torah) on menstruation

In Leviticus 15:19-30, we see that the Bible describes menstruating women as spiritually impure so much so that if a menstruating woman touches something, that thing becomes impure and if someone else subsequently touches that thing, they too shall become impure. According to the Bible, menstruating women would be forbidden from entering a mosque or touching the Quran. Could it be that Muslim scholars have mixed Quranic law with Biblical law in order to come up with Islamic law with regards to menstruating women?


Women must fast and pray even when menstruating unless menstruation causes pain or harm similar to that of being sick. The only prohibition in the Quran during menstruation is sexual intercourse.

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Summary of the Quran

This is a summary of the Quran sourced from Wikipedia. It may be inaccurate. Nevertheless, it can help give an idea of the topics in each chapter.

Chapter 1: Al Fatihah – The Opening

1 In the name of Allāh, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.
2 [All] praise is [due] to Allāh, Lord of the worlds –
3 The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful,
4 Sovereign of the Day of Recompense.
5 It is You we worship and You we ask for help.
6 Guide us to the straight path –
7 The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray.

Chapter 2: Al Baqarah – The Cow

1-20 Unbelievers and hypocrites reproved
21-38 Exhortation to the worship of the true God
39-102 Jews and Christians urged to accept the claim of Muhammad to be a prophet of God
102-112 The opposition of Jews and Christians to Muhammad’s prophetic pretensions combated
113 The doctrine of abrogation enunciated
115 A Qibla declared to be unnecessary
116-141The Jews denounced and the religion of Abraham declared to be the true Islam
142-153 The Jews finally abandoned and the Arabs accepted by the adoption of Makkah as the Qibla of Islam
154-163 The bereaved friends of those slain at the Battle of Badr comforted
164-172 Makkans exhorted to faith in God, and directed to observe the law respecting forbidden meats
173-176 Law concerning lawful and unlawful food (delivered at Madina)
177 The sum of Muslim duty
178-179 The law of retaliation
180-182 The law concerning bequests
183-185 The law concerning fasting
186-187 The fast of Ramadan
188-202 The pilgrimage to Makkah and war for the faith
203-206 Hypocrites and true believers contrasted
207-208 Exhortation to a hearty acceptance of Islam
209 The doom of infidels pronounced
210-212 The Jews reproached
213 Suffering to be patiently endured
214-242 Sundry laws relating to almsgiving, war, wine, lots, orphans, marriage, women, oaths, and divorce
243-253 The duty of warring in defence of religion enjoined by precept, and illustrated by the history of former prophets
254-257 The Throne Verse
258-260 The doctrine of the resurrection illustrated
261-274 Exhortation and encouragement to almsgiving
275-277 Usury forbidden
278-284 The law concerning contracts and debts
285-286 The prophet’s confession and prayer

Chapter 3: Al Imran – The Family of Imran

1-2 God one and self-existent
3-4 The Quran to be believed
5-6 God omniscient
7 Plain and obscure verses of the Quran
8-9 The prayer of those versed in Quranic mystery
10-12 The punishment of Pharaoh a warning to infidels
13 The victory at the Battle of Badr alluded to
14-18 The faithful, their character and reward
19-20 Islam the true religion
21-25 The punishment of unbelievers eternal
26-27 God omnipotent and sovereign
28-34 Obedience to God enjoined
35-38 The Virgin Mary – her conception – nurtured by Zacharias
39-41 John the Baptist, his birth
42-57 Christ announced to the Virgin – his miracles, apostles etc
58-65 Muhammad’s dispute with the Christians of Najran
66-77 The hypocritical Jews reproached
78-83 Prophets not to be worshipped
84-91 God’s curse on infidels
92 Almsgiving enjoined
93-95 The Jews unlawfully forbid certain meats
96-97 The Kaabah founded
98-105 Muslims are warned against the friendship of Jews etc
106-109 The lot of infidels and believers contrasted
110-112 Muslims safe from the enmity of Jews and Christians
113-115 Certain believing Jews commended for their faith
116-120 Muslims not to make friends of Jews and Christians
121-122 The battle of Uhud alluded to
123-129 Disheartened Muslims encouraged
130-136 Usury forbidden
137-138 The doom of defamers of the apostles
139-144 Islam not dependent on Muhammad for success
145-148 The former prophets are examples of perseverance
149-151 Unbelievers to be avoided
152-154 Certain Muslims disobedient at Uhud
155-157 The hypocrites rebuked
158-159 Muslims slain at Uhud to enter paradise
160-161 Mild treatment of vacillating Muslims
162-165 The spoils of war to be honestly divided
166-169 The faithful sifted by defeat at Uhud
170-172 The joy of the Uhud martyrs in paradise
173-176 Certain Muslims commended for faithfulness
177-180 The fate of unbelievers
181 The miser’s doom
182-190 Scoffing Jews denounced—they charge Muhammad with imposture
191-195 Meditations and prayers of the pious
196-198 God’s answer to the prayers of the pious
199 Certain believing Jews and Christians commended
200 Exhortation to patience and perseverance

Chapter 4: An-Nisa’ – The Women

1 Man and his Creator
2-5 Orphans, the duty of guardians to such
6-13 The law of inheritance
14-15 The punishment of adulteresses
16-17 Repentance enjoined
18-19 Women’s rights
20-27 Forbidden and lawful degrees in marriage
28-30 Gaming, rapine, and suicide forbidden
31-33 Man’s superiority over woman recognised
34 Reconcilement of man and wife
35-36 Parents, orphans, the poor etc to be kindly treated
37-41 Hypocrisy in almsgiving condemned
42 Prayer forbidden to the drunken and polluted
43-45 Jewish mockers denounced
46-53 Idolatry the unpardonable sin
54-55 The rewards of faith and unbelief
56 Trusts to be faithfully paid back
57-68 Disputes to be settled by God and his Apostle
69-74 Precautions, &c., in warring for the faith
75-84 The disobedient and cowardly reproved
85 Salutations to be returned
86-90 Treatment of hypocrites and apostates
91-93 Believers not to be slain or plundered
94-99 Believers in heathen countries to fly to Muslim lands
100-102 Special order for prayer in time of war
103 Exhortation to zeal for Islam
133 Fraud denounced
115-125 Idolatry and Islam compared
126 Equity in dealing with women and orphans enjoined
127-129 Wives to be subject to the will of husbands
130-132 God to be feared
134-138 Muslims exhorted to steadfastness
139-143 Hypocrites to be shunned
144-151 The reward of hypocrisy and belief compared
152-154 Presumptuous and disobedient Jews destroyed
155-158 The Jews defame Mary and Jesus
159-160 Certain kinds of food forbidden to Jews as punishment
161-168 Muhammad’s inspiration like that of other prophets
169-174 Christians reproved for their faith in Jesus as the Son of God and in the doctrine of the Trinity
175 The law of inheritance for distant relatives

Chapter 5: Al-Ma’idah – The Table

1 Covenants are to be fulfilled
2 Lawful meats
3 Heathen pilgrims not to be molested
4 Islam completed—last revelation of the Quran
4-5 Certain kinds of food, gaming, and lots forbidden
6 Muslims permitted to eat the food of Jews and Christians, and to marry their women
7 The law of purifications
8 Believers reminded of the covenant of Aqabah
9-11 Muslims should forget old quarrels with brethren
12 God’s favour to Muslims
13-15 Disobedience of Jews and Christians exposed
16-18 Jews and Christians are exhorted to accept Islam
19-20 The divinity of Christ denied
21 Jews and Christians not the children of God
22 Muhammad sent as a warner
23-29 Israel’s rebellion at Kadesh Barnea
30-34 The story of Cain and Abel
35-36 The sin of homicide
37-38 The punishment of theft accompanied by apostasy
39 The faithful exhorted to fight for religion
40-41 The punishment of infidels
42-44 The penalty of theft
45-55 Muhammad to judge the Jews and Christians by the law, gospel, and the Quran
56 Muslims forbidden to fraternise with Jews and Christians
57-58 Hypocrites threatened
59-61 Believers warned and instructed
62-63 Muslims not to associate with infidels
64-65 The Jews exhorted and warned
66-69 The hypocrisy and unbelief of the Jews rebuked
70 Promises to believing Jews and Christians
71 Muhammad required to preach
72 He attests Jewish and Christian Scriptures
73 Believing Jews, Sabeans, and Christians to be saved
74-75 The Jews rejected and killed the prophets of God
76-81 The doctrines of the Trinity and Christ’s Sonship rejected
82-84 Disobedient Jews cursed by their prophets
85-88 Jewish hatred and Christian friendship compared
89-90 Muslims to use lawful food etc
91 Expiation for perjury
92-94 Wine and lots forbidden
95-97 Law concerning hunting and gaming during pilgrimage
98-100 Pilgrimage and its rites enjoined
101-102 The Prophet not to be pestered with questions
102-104 Heathen Arab customs denounced
105-107 Wills to be attested by witnesses
108 The prophets ignorant of the characters of their followers
109-110 Jesus—his miracles—God’s favour to him
111 The apostles of Jesus were Muslims
112-114 A table provided by Jesus for the apostles
115-118 Jesus did not teach his followers to worship him and his mother
119 The reward of the true believer
120 God is sovereign

Chapter 6: Al-An’am – The Cattle

1-3 Praise to the Almighty and Omniscient Creator
4-5 The wilful unbelief of the Makkah infidels
6 They are threatened with the divine judgment
7 The people of Makkah hopelessly unbelieving
8-9 Why angels were not sent to the infidels
10-11 Those who rejected the former prophets were punished
12-18 Why the true God should be served
19 God the witness between Muhammad and the infidels
20 The Jews recognise Muhammad as a prophet
21-23 Idolaters on the judgment-day—their condition
24-29 Scoffing idolaters rebuked and threatened
30-31 The condition of believers and unbelievers after death
32-33 Unbelievers make God a liar
33 God’s word and purposes unchangeable
34 Miracles of no avail to convince infidels
35 God will raise the dead to life
36 Why God did not grant the signs asked by unbelievers
37 Animals and birds to be brought into judgment
38 Infidels are deaf and dumb
39-40 Idolaters will call upon God in their distress
41-44 Adversity and prosperity alike unmeaning to infidels
45 God is the only helper in trouble
46-48 Unbelievers, if impenitent, sure to perish
49 Muhammad unacquainted with the secrets of God
50 There shall be no intercessor on the judgment-day
51-54 The motives of professing Muslims not to be judged
55-57 Muhammad declines the proposals of idolaters
58-61 God the Omniscient and Sovereign Ruler
62-64 God the Almighty Deliverer
65 Muhammad charged with imposture
66 Unbelievers will certainly be punished
67-69 Mockers to be avoided by Muslims
70-71 The punishment of idolaters certain and dreadful
71-74 Muslims commanded to obey God only
75-84 Abraham’s testimony against idolatry
85-91 The prophets who succeeded Abraham
92 The unbelieving Jews (of Madína) rebuked
93 The Quran confirms the former Scriptures
94 The fate of those who forge Scriptures
95 Idolaters deserted by their gods on the judgment-day
96-100 The God of nature the true God
101-103 God has no offspring
104-105 God’s favour in sending the Quran
106-108 The command to retire from Makkah
109 Muhammad not permitted to work miracles
110-113 The people of Makkah given over to unbelief
114 Muhammad the prophet of God
114-117 The direction of Muslims and idolaters contrasted
118-121 Law of permitted and forbidden meats
122 The righteous and unbelievers compared
122-125 Wicked leaders of the people—conduct and punishment
126-127 The blessedness of the faithful
128-130 God’s threatenings against unbelieving men and genii
131 God always warns men before punishing idolatry
132-133 Rewards and punishments shall be according to works
134 The punishment of unbelievers certain
135-136 The idolaters of Makkah rebuked
137-139 Evil customs of the Quraish exposed
140 The idolaters of Makkah threatened
141 The fruit of trees to be eaten
142-144 Controversy between the Quraish and Muhammad concerning forbidden meats referred to
145 The law concerning forbidden meats rehearsed
146 The Jewish law of forbidden meats
147 God will punish those who accuse the prophets of imposture
148-149 The idolaters of Makkah are reprobate
150 Their testimony unworthy of credit
151-153 Forbidden things rehearsed
154-157 The Quran attests the teaching of Moses and Jesus
158 The fate of the wicked on the judgment-day
159 Sectaries reproved
160 The reward of the righteous and wicked compared
161-162 Islam the true religion
163 Muhammad’s self-consecration to God
164-165 The idolaters exhorted to believe in God

Chapter 7: Al-Araf – The Heights

1-2 Muhammad not to doubt the Quran
3 The people exhorted to believe in it
4-5 Many cities destroyed for their unbelief
6-9 Prophets and their hearers on the judgment-day
10 The ingratitude of infidels
11 The creation of Adam
11-12 Satan refuses to worship Adam
13 He is driven from Paradise
14-15 He is respited until the resurrection
16-17 He avows his purpose to beguile man
18-19 God threatens Satan and his victims
20-24 The fall of Adam and Eve
25-26 They are expelled from Paradise
27-29 Indecent customs condemned
30-31 God to be sought in prayer
32-34 True worshippers to be decently clad
35 Every nation has a fixed term of life
36-42 The doom of those who reject the apostles of God
43-45 The blessed reward of true believers
45-46 God’s curse on the infidels
47-50 The veil of Aráf and its inhabitants
51-52 The rejecters of God’s apostles to be forgotten
53-54 A warning against rejecting Muhammad
55-59 The Creator and Lord of the worlds to be served
60-65 Noah rejected by his people—their fate
66-73 Húd rejected by the Ádites—their fate
74-80 Sálih rejected by the Thamúdites—their destruction
81-85 Lot rejected and the Sodomites destroyed
86-94 Shuaib rejected by the Madianites, and their doom
95-96 Unbelievers at Makkah unaffected either by adversity or prosperity
97-101 The dreadful fate of those cities who rejected the apostles of God and charged them with imposture
102-103 They are reprobated
104-105 Moses is sent to Pharaoh and his princes
106-108 The miracles of the serpent and leprous hand
109-115 The magicians of Egypt called
116-120 Contest by miracles between Moses and the magicians
121-123 Several magicians converted to Moses
124-127 Pharaoh’s anger kindled against them
128 Pharaoh and his princes persecute Moses and his people
129-130 Moses exhorts his people to patient trust in God
131-132 Adversity and prosperity alike unavailing to bring Pharaoh to repentance
133-134 The Egyptian unbelievers plagued
135 The hypocrisy of the Egyptians
136 They are destroyed in the Red Sea
137 The people of Moses triumph, and possess the eastern and western land
138-141 The children of Israel become idolatrous
142 Moses makes Aaron his deputy, and fasts forty days
143 He desires to see the glory of God, but repents his rashness
144-145 God gives Moses the law on two tables
146-147 Infidels threatened for calling their prophets impostors
148 The people of Moses worship the golden calf
149 They repent their sin
150 Moses in indignation assaults Aaron
151 He prays for forgiveness for himself and Aaron
152 He calls for vengeance on the idolaters
153 God merciful to believers
154 Moses’s anger is appeased
155 He chooses seventy elders
155-156 Moses prays for deliverance from destruction by lightning
156-159 The Illiterate Prophet foretold by Moses
160 Some Jews rightly directed
161 The Israelites divided into twelve tribes
161 The rock smitten, and manna and quails given
162-163 The command to enter the city saying Hittatun, and the fate of the disobedient
164-167 The Sabbath-breakers changed into apes
168-169 Dispersion of the Jews among the nations
170-171 Some of their successors faithful to the law of Moses
172 God shakes Mount Sinai over the Israelites
173-175 God’s covenant with the children of Adam
176-179 The curse of Balaam a warning to infidels
180 Many genii and men created for hell
181-182 The names of God not to be travestied
183-184 God’s method of leading infidels to destruction
185 Muhammad not possessed of a devil
186 No hope for the reprobate
187 The coming of the “last hour” sudden
188 Muhammad no seer, only a preacher
189-190 Adam and Eve were guilty of idolatry
191-198 The folly of idolatry
199 Muhammad commanded to use moderation
200-201 He is to repel Satan by using the name of God
202 The people of Makkah incorrigible
203 They charge Muhammad with imposture
204-206 The Qurán to be listened to in silence and holy meditation

Chapter 8: Al-Anfal – The Spoils

1 Spoils belong to God and his Apostle
2-4 True believers and their future reward
5-6 Muslims reproved for distrusting their Prophet
7 God gives the Muslims either the Quraish or their caravan
8 The victory of Badr a seal to Islam
9 Angelic aid vouchsafed to Muhammad
10-11 The Muslims refreshed and comforted before the battle
12 The angels enjoined to comfort the faithful by destroying the infidel Quraish
13-14 Infidels are doomed to punishment here and hereafter
15-16 Muslims are never to turn their backs on the infidels on pain of hell-fire
17-18 The victory of Badr a miracle
19 The Quraish are warned against further warfare with the Muslims
20-21 Muslims exhorted to steadfastness in faith
22-23 Infidels compared to deaf and dumb brutes
24 Believers are to submit themselves to God and his Apostle
25-28 They are warned against civil strife, deception, and treachery
29 God’s favour to true believers
30 Plots against Muhammad frustrated by God
31 The infidels liken the Quran to fables
32-33 The Quraish were protected from deserved punishment by Muhammad’s presence among them
34-38 The idolaters of Mecca rebuked and threatened
39 An amnesty offered to the Quraish
40-41 Impenitent idolaters to be extirpated from the earth
42 How the spoils of war are to be divided
43-44 The Muslims were led by God to fight at Badr to attest the truth of Islam
45-46 The Muslims encouraged, and the infidels lured to destruction, by each seeing the other to be few in number
47-48 Believers exhorted to obedience
49 Believers warned against impious vainglory
50 The devil deserts the Quraish at Badr
51-53 The fate of hypocrites
54-56 Their doom like that of Pharaoh and his people
57 The worst of beasts are the infidels
58-60 Treachery to be met with its like
61 God is against the infidels
62 The Muslims excited to war against unbelievers
63 Condition of peace with unbelievers
64 The miracle of Arab union
65-66 God with the Prophet and the Muslims in warring for the faith
68-70 Muslims reproved for accepting ransom for the captives taken at Badr
71 Captive Quraish exhorted to accept Islam, and warned against deception
73-75 The brotherhood of the Ansárs and Muháj Jirín
76 The hereditary rights of blood-relations re-established

Chapter 9: At-Tawbah – The Repentance

1-2 Four months’ immunity proclaimed to idolaters
3-5 After four months, all idolaters to be slain, with exception of those with whom treaties have been made
5-6 Ignorant idolaters to be taught the religion of Islam, after which, if they repent, they are to be spared alive
7 No new league to be made with idolaters
8-10 Idolaters are not to be trusted
11 Penitent idolaters to be regarded as brethren
13-16 Muslims exhorted to fight against the truce-breakers of Makkah
17-18 All but Muslims to be excluded from the sacred temples
19 Abbás rebuked for his vainglory
20-22 The Muhájjirín assigned the first rank among Muslims—their reward
23-24 True believers to refuse friendship with nearest kin if they be infidels
25-27 The victory of Hunain due to God’s help
28 Idolaters excluded from the Kaabah
29 The Jews and Christians as well as idolaters to be attacked
30 Jews and Christians reproved for applying the epithet “Son of God” to Ezra and Jesus
31-32 They also worship their priests and monks
33 Islam superior to all other religions
34-35 Stingy Muslims likened to covetous monks—their punishment
36 Infidels may be attacked in sacred months
37 The sacred months not to be transferred
38-41 Muslims exhorted to go on expedition to Tabúq by reference to God’s help to Muhammad and Abu Baqr in the cave
42 The lukewarm Muslims rebuked for wishing to stay at home
43 Muhammad rebuked for excusing some of these from going
44-46 Willingness to fight for Muhammad, a test of faith
47-50 Seditious Muslims rebuked
51-52 The sure reward of the faithful
53-55 God refuses the offerings of infidels and hypocrites
55 The wealth and prosperity of infidels a sign of their reprobation
56-57 Half-hearted Muslims reproved
58-59 Those who had spread libellous reports regarding Muhammad’s use of alms rebuked
60 How alms should be expended
61-69 Grumblers and hypocrites threatened
70 They are warned by the example of the wicked in former ages
71-73 The faithful described—their rewards
74-75 Hypocrites denounced and threatened
76-79 Prosperity of infidels a prelude to their destruction
80 God shall scoff at the scoffers
81 The defamers of the faithful shall never be forgiven
82-84 Punishment of the “stayers at home”
85 Muhammad forbidden to pray at the grave of unbelievers and hypocrites
86-88 The Prophet not to wonder at the prosperity of the wicked
89-90 Reward of those who assist the Apostle in his wars
91 Hypocritical Arabs of the desert reproved
92-93 Who may lawfully remain at home in time of war
94-97 Other hypocrites reproved
98-99 The Baduín, the worst of hypocrites
100 Some of them true believers
101 The reward of the Ansars and Muhájjirín
102 The desert Arabs and some of the people of Madína reproved
103-106 The penitent confessors in Madína are pardoned
107 Others await God’s decision in their case
108-111 Denunciation against those who built a Masjid in opposition to Muhammad and his faithful ones
112-113 True believers are sold to God
114 Muslims not to pray for idolatrous relatives
115 Why Abraham prayed for his idolatrous parents
116-118 God merciful to the faithful
119 The three recreant Ansars pardoned
120-122 The people of Madína rebuked for want of loyalty to Muhammad
123 Some believers excused from going to war
124 True believers to war against neighbouring infidels and hypocrisy
125-128 Reproof of those who doubt the revelations of God and Muhammad
129-130 The Apostle trusts in the help of God

Chapter 10: Yunus – Jonah

1-2 The Makkans charge their Prophet with sorcery because he is a man from among them
3 The Creator and Ruler of the universe the only true God
4 Believers rewarded at death for good deeds
4 Unbelievers punished after death
5-6 God’s works are signs to all men
7-11 Rewards and punishments of the faithful and the unbelieving
12 God’s purpose in prospering the wicked
13 Men pray to God in affliction, but forget Him with the return of prosperity
14-15 The people of Makkah warned by the example of former generations
16-18 The Quraish desire a different Quran — Muhammad protests his inability to alter it
19 Idolaters trust intercessors who can neither profit nor harm them
20 All men originally professed one religion
21 The people demand of Muhammad a sign
22 When men despise the judgments of God he threatens greater suffering
23-24 Unbelievers remember God in distress by land and sea, but forget Him when delivered
25 Life likened to water which sustains vegetable life
26-28 Paradise for Muslims and hell for the infidels
29-31 Idolaters will be deserted by their gods in the judgment-day
32-37 Idolaters exhorted to worship him whom they recognise as their Creator, Preserver, and Governor
38 The Quran no forgery; it confirms the former Scriptures
39-40 Those who charge Muhammad with imposture challenged to produce a chapter like it
41 Some believe in the Quran, others reject it
42-47 The unbelieving Quraish declared to be reprobate
48 An apostle is sent to every nation
49 Unbelievers mock at the threatenings of their prophet
50 Every nation has its fixed period of existence
51-55 Infidels will believe when their punishment comes upon them
56-57 God is the Author of life and death
58-59 The Quran an admonition and direction to the unbelievers
60-61 Lawful food not to be prohibited
62 Muhammad ever under Divine guidance
63-65 The blessedness of those who believe and fear God
66-68 Unbelievers cannot harm the Prophet
69-71 Those rebuked who say that God hath begotten children
72-75 Muhammad likened to Noah and other prophets
76 Moses and Aaron sent to Pharaoh and his princes
77-82 They are rejected as sorcerers and perverters of the national religion
83 A few of the people only believe on them
84-86 Moses and Aaron with the believers put their trust in God
87 The Israelites commanded to be constant in prayer to God
88-89 Moses’s prayer, that God would destroy the Egyptians, is heard
90 Pharaoh and his people drowned in the sea
90-92 He repents and is raised out of the sea for a sign to the people
93 The Israelites are provided with a habitation and blessing
94-95 Jews and Christians appealed to in confirmation of the statements of the Quran
96-98 No kind of miracle will suffice to make the reprobate believe
99-103 Infidels do not believe on Muhammad because God does not permit them to do so
104-107 The people of Makkah exhorted to accept the true orthodox faith
108 Muhammad not responsible for the faith or unbelief of the people
109 The Prophet exhorted to be patient

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Hair Transplant Options for Hair Loss

Of all the ways to address hair loss, the most natural and permanent but most expensive solution is by getting a hair transplant. It has become extremely popular and no longer limited to the rich and famous. Following are different types of hair transplant options to consider before you spend thousands of dollars.

FUT (Follicular Unit Transplantation) / Strip Procedure

This method involves cutting a rectangular strip of scalp from the back of your head then stitching the opening closed. The hairs on the strip and separated and transplanted one by one to the recipient (bald) area. This method is the quickest and so it’s likely the cheapest but it will leave a noticeable scar on the back of your head unless you wear your hair long to cover it up.

Classic FUE / Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE using a micro motor)

This method involves using a punch tool to extract individual hair follicles from the back of your head. After sufficient follicles have been removed, they are transplanted one by one to the recipient area. As a result of using a punch tool, you will not see an obvious scar like in the FUT method but you will see minor dot-shaped scars if you have short hair.

Image result for fue scar

Sapphire FUE (FUE using a sapphire blade)

This method is the same as the regular FUE method except it uses a sapphire blade which allows for creating smaller holes in the scalp into which hair will be transplanted. The smaller holes allow for creating holes that are closer to each other resulting in higher density.

Implanter size: 1.0 – 1.5 mm using sapphire blade

DHI FUE (FUE using a Choi Implanter Pen)

Unlike the FUT and FUE methods, where all follicles are removed before they are transplanted one by one to the recipient area, with the DHI method, each follicle is removed and immediately transplanted thereby reducing the amount of time the follicle remains outside the body. Furthermore, the tool used to implant the follicle is a choi pen.

Implanter needle size: 0.8-0.9 mm

Advantages of DHI Technique

Among its advantages indicated by some hair restoration experts are as follows;

  • Higher density of transplanted hair compared to FUT and FUE.
  • Reduced time of grafts remaining outside the body, thus ensuring strong and healthy placement of the grafts.
  • Adequate hair follicles survival rates.
  • Reduced bleeding during the creation of the recipient area. Reduced trauma during graft handling, thus leading to less damage in the blood supply to the implanted area.
  • Fast recovery during the postoperative phase, the patient can return back to his/her normal routine quicker.
  • The recipient site does not have to be shaved, as it is a more suitable procedure that enables this condition.

Hair Stem Cell Transplantation / PL-FUT (Partial Longitudinal Follicular Unit Transplantation)

This method involves only extracting a portion of each hair follicle from the back of the head. As a result, there are no scars. Also, one follicle results in two hairs – a hair in the donor area and a hair in the recipient area. In this way, the number of hairs is multiplied (doubled).

PL-FUT is better suited if

  • small donor area
  • want higher density, e.g. in eyebrows, beards, mustache

Implanter needle size: 0.5 up to 0.6 mm

HASCI claims to have a better preservative solution to preserve the follicles.

In an article by Dr. Gho titled Donor hair follicle preservation by partial follicular unit extraction. A method to optimize hair transplantation the abstract reads

There are different stem cell pools located in the hair follicle. Objective: To try to determine whether follicular units can survive a partial extraction and whether this partial extracted follicular unit can regenerate new hairs. Methods: From five individuals, between 100 and 150 grafts were harvested from the occipital area of the scalp. Suitable grafts were implanted into the recipient area. Hair growth and characteristics in the donor area and the recipient area were observed at different intervals. Results: After 3 months, between 92.1% and 104.1% (mean 97.7%) of the partial follicular units in the donor sites survived and produced hairs with the same characteristics. After 1 year, 91.1–101.7% (mean 95.9%) of the implanted partial follicular units regenerated hair growth with the same characteristics as the hairs in the donor area. Conclusions: We revealed that extracted partial longitudinal follicular units transplanted to the recipient area can be used as complete follicular units to regenerate completely differentiated hair growth with the same characteristics as in the donor area. We also revealed that the partial follicular units in the donor area can survive and produce the same number of hairs with the same characteristics. This technique enables us to generate two hair follicles from one follicle with consistent results and preserve the donor area.

In the article by Dr. Gho titled Improved hair restoration method for burn the abstract reads

Background: Extracted partial longitudinal follicular units can be used as complete follicular units to regenerate completely differentiated hair growth. The partial follicular units that remained in the dermis in the donor area can survive and produce hairs. This technique enables us to multiply hair follicles in vivo, while preserving the donor area and therefore is suitable in persons, who have a relative small donor area compared to the recipient area, as in scalp burns.

Objectives: With this study, we try to determine if partial longitudinal follicular unit transplantation (PL-FUT) can be used for facial and/or scalp burns.

Materials and methods: Four burn victims (age 22–39 years, mean 27.75 years) were treated in the face (eyebrows, and beard) and/or on the scalp with PL-FUT. The grafts were harvested with hollow wave-tipped needles with an inner diameter of 0.6 mm from the occipital area of the scalp. The suitable longitudinal partial follicular units were impregnated with a preservative medium, and implanted into the recipient area. Hair growth in the donor area as well as the recipient area was observed before treatment, and at intervals of 1 week, 3 months and 1 year after the treatment.

Results: After evaluation of the donor area, sometimes a few little white spots were visible, but almost all hair follicles in the donor site re-produce hairs after 2 years. All treated patients had satisfactory or very satisfactory cosmetic results in the treated area.

ConclusionsLongitudinal partial follicular unit transplantation (LP-FUT) may represent the first reliable patient-friendly method to generate two hair follicles from one hair follicle with consistent results and preservation of the donor area. Therefore, this method is very suitable for people with facial and/or scalp burns.

This method is patented and only offered at Hair Stem Cell Clinic.

Where to Get a Hair Transplant

Hair transplant costs in the US and Europe are very expensive. You can easily spend $10,000 to $15,000 for 2000 – 2500 follicles. Turkey has become the hair transplant capitol of the world. You can get a quality hair transplant for 3000 euros which will transplant 4000 hairs.

One example of a good clinic is VeraClinic in Istanbul.

Hair Recipient Areas

Though most people get a hair transplant to fill in a bald spot on their scalp, you can also get a hair transplant to fill in your beard, mustache and eyebrows.

Life Advice

Following is some advice regarding major life issues I would offer to the average person (the majority of people) based on my experience and the experience of others. Unfortunately, these are things they don’t teach you in school.

Invest in real estate

People don’t like saving money and generally aren’t good with money. If you choose to rent instead of buy a house for a long period of time, you will for the most part lose money and not end up with much money. Your rent will keep increasing and the money spent on rent will just be gone – given to your landlord. Conversely, if you buy a house, even with just a 20% down payment, while you may feel like you’ve lost a huge amount of money from paying the large down payment, in most cases you haven’t lost any money at all. You’ve just moved that money from one place (a bank account) to equity in the house. When you make your monthly payments, though some of the payment amount will be lost to pay interest to a lender, e.g. a bank, the remainder of the money will be yours, albeit in the form of equity in the house. Furthermore, the house will likely increase in value which increases your equity in the house. In hot markets like the San Francisco Bay Area, one can realize an impressive gain in house value due to appreciation, e.g. $200K over a few years of doing nothing but paying your mortgage.

Most people are not good investors, whether in the stock market or in running a business. While it’s easy to invest in the stock market, it’s extremely volatile and more akin to gambling. Running a business is a lot of work which most people can’t handle. Therefore, most people would be better off just investing in real estate and becoming a landlord. While it does require some work, it’s much less than running a business and more predictable than the stock market. Having a rental property would allow your net worth to grow much faster than if you just owned one home as your primary residence. In other words, if you had to choose between buying one dream home for $1M as your primary residence versus buying two average homes, each costing $500K, where one would be your primary residence and the other a rental property, you’ll end up having a higher net worth faster in the latter case as your tenants in your rental property will be paying that property’s mortgage for you.

Some ways to help get your first house are:

  • Buy a 3 bedroom house and rent out two of the bedrooms
  • Buy a duplex or multiplex, live in one unit and rent out the other units
  • If you know home improvement, buy a cheap fixer-upper and fix it up while living in it

The ways listed above may not get you your dream home but at least it can help you build equity to put towards getting a nicer home.

Continue reading Life Advice

Fastest Way to Learn a Language

If you want to learn a language, you will probably feel overwhelmed as there is a lot to understand and memorize and there are many different approaches to learning. Below is one approach that I’d argue makes sense and will allow you to be able to communicate as soon as possible.

Step 1: Grammar

Grammar is like a language’s formula. Understanding a language’s grammar will allow you to understand a language’s structure and build words and sentences based on a particular formula. There are many grammar resources available and you simply need to find one that you like.

Step 2: Vocabulary

When it comes to building your vocabulary, you don’t want to overwhelm yourself with thick vocabulary books as that will be discouraging and non necessarily useful. Instead, it’s more useful to initially focus on a language’s most popular words. For English, following are the most popular words grouped by part of speech.

Step 3: Read Dialogues and Essays / Short Stories

Once you’ve reached this step, you can proceed to reading dialogues and essays. Reading dialogues is important because when you speak to people, you are having a dialogue with them. Reading essays  such as short stories is also important because when you communicate with people, you will often be telling a story, whether written or verbal. One online resource that contains thousands of dialogues and essays is Zabuun.

Step 4: Write

At this point, you should be able to put together sentences and write stories. You can write about anything although it’s probably better to just write about yourself since when you meet people, you will often talk about yourself. When you come across a word you don’t know, look it up and make a list to improve the chances of you remembering.

Step 5: Listen to Dialogues, Watch Movies & Talk to People

The purpose of this step is to practice pronunciation and hearing how native speakers speak. You can play audio dialogues, e.g. phone conversations or interviews while driving to work. There are many movies online that offer subtitles in your target language. If you are at an advanced level, you can try following the news.

Language Tools

  • TransOver Chrome Extension
    This extension will allow you to see a translation of a word you click or hover over on any web page. It’s handy.
  • Google Translate
    This site will allow you to translate website, words, phrases, and more.
  • Google Translate App
    This phone app allows you to use your phone’s camera to see a translation of any text you point it at in real time. Pretty amazing.

Language Resources

Language Difficulty Levels

According to the Defense language Institute (DLI), following are the difficulty levels of various languages for English speaking people. One primary factor is the difficulty in learning the writing system (different alphabet).

Difficulty Categories Duration of instruction Languages
I 26 weeks French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish
II 34 weeks German, Indonesian
III 48 weeks Dari/Persian Farsi, Hebrew, Hindi, Russian, Serbian/Croatian, Tagalog, Thai, Turkish, Uzbek, Urdu
 IV 64 weeks Arabic (Levantine, Iraqi), Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Pashto

Audio Speed Changer

Some people, like Egyptians, talk really fast. This can be frustrating as a learner. If you’re watching a YouTube video, you can slow the playback speed in the player controls. If you are listening to MP3s, you can also slow playback. For example, the Podcast Addict app allows you to load a one or more mp3s in a folder and adjust the playback speed.

Hair Care Tips

For at least the last 10 years, I’ve been doing what probably most guys do when it comes to hair care – the bare minimum. We use a 2-in-1 shampoo and conditioner to save time, quickly towel dry our hair, comb it and we’re done. And we do that every day. While that may seem like an innocent process, it turns out it can easily damage your hair resulting in dry, tangled, and/or frizzy hair at best. Personally, I noticed that my hair became very dry and frizzy. It also felt rough and tangled when I’d run a comb or my fingers through it. And for some reason, the front section was in worse condition than the rest. So, I decided to figure out WTF was going on and try to repair my hair since, apparently, I was unknowingly damaging it. Below are some tips that have made a big difference for me. The products below are used in the order listed.

1. Silk Pillowcase

i used to use a regular cotton pillowcase but now I use a silk one. When you sleep, your hair is constantly in contact with your pillow so having a pillow made of a super soft and silky fabric will help lessen any roughness done to your hair as you lay your head and turn around while you sleep. Plus, silk feels very good on your skin and especially your face. The pillowcase I bought is Spasilk 100% Pure Silk Facial Beauty Pillowcase which costs $20. With a 4 star rating from 764 customer reviews, apparently many other people like it as well.

Continue reading Hair Care Tips

Common Mistakes in English Grammar

Who’s vs Whose

They’re vs Their

It’s vs Its

Accept vs Except

Affect vs Effect

Apostrophe s

Assure vs Ensure vs Insure

Bi- vs Semi-

Borrow vs Lend vs Loan

e.g. vs i.e.

Either vs Neither

Everyday vs Every day

Farther vs Further

Good vs Well

Hers vs Her’s

I vs Me

i before e

If I would have …

Lay vs Lie

Me vs Myself

Ours vs Our’s

Theirs vs Their’s

Who vs Whom

Your vs You’re

Yours vs Your’s

Free Tech & Business Books

Borders Books has gone out of business. The ebook revolution is here. If you read technology and business books like myself, you’ll be happy to know that you can access a lot of free, new books online at Safari / ProQuest. The catch is you need to access the site as a member of your local library.

For the San Francisco Public Library, the link is at


Continue reading Free Tech & Business Books