Why Some Countries Are Poor

Every now and then I come across a documentary which shows extreme poverty in many places around the world. I can’t help but wonder why many of these countries don’t appear to be progressing whereas others which used to be poor, like China and Singapore, have become rich in a relatively short period of time. This article examines some of the reasons that prevent countries from growing.

High Levels of Corruption

According to Transparency International, there tends to be less corruption in rich countries and more corruption in poor countries. This makes sense since growth would be limited if governments steal their people’s money.

The problem with corruption is if you elect a new leader / president who isn’t corrupt, they will have a hard time eliminating corruption if other government officials are used to being corrupt. You likely need to sack all government officials and hire new ones who hopefully aren’t corrupt.

No Access to Education

According to this UNESCO study, it’s clear that there’s a correlation between poverty and education.

Pupil-to-Teacher Ratio

If we look at the countries ranked by primary school pupil-to-teacher ratio, we find, unsurprisingly, that there tends to be a smaller percentage of teachers in poor countries than in rich ones.

Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (http://uis.unesco.org/)

Literacy Rate

Another interesting metric is literacy rates. According to this map, we see consistent results showing poorer countries tend to have more illiterate people.

Tuition Costs

Another issue is the cost of education. While most countries offer free primary school education, most require tuition for a college education. Many rich European countries offer free college education and some, like in the U.S., offer very affordable college tuition. U.S. students can also get free money (grants) and low interest loans to help pay for college.

High Population

In high population countries, there aren’t enough resources (jobs, schools, teachers, etc) to support the large population. This situation becomes one of supply and demand where there is a large supply of unskilled workers and a short supply of resources. This results in a large percentage of the population becoming poor because, for example, they are unavailable seats to a nearby school or they are unavailable jobs.

According to this article by the World Economic Forum, there is a correlation between population size and a country’s wealth. In rich countries, people tend to have fewer children whereas in poor countries, people tend to have more children.

There is also a correlation between population size and education. Education leads to lower birth rates and slows population growth. This makes it easier for countries to develop. A more-educated workforce also makes poverty eradication and economic growth easier to achieve. Of course, economic growth brings with it another problem: increased consumption.

In one study, it was found that uneducated Malian women gave birth to almost 7 children whereas educated ones only gave birth to 4.

In order to slow population growth, some countries have tried to limit the number of children born. However, when China did this, it just turned a problem of population growth into one of an ageing society.

According to an article on the US National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health website, fertility rates tend to be higher in poorly resourced countries. In developing countries children are needed as a labor force and to provide care for their parents in old age. In these countries, fertility rates are higher due to the lack of access to contraceptives and generally lower levels of female education. When children are put to work, e.g. by selling water or tissue at busy intersections, they are not in school and end up following in their parents’ footsteps, i.e. having many kids to make them work. Also, couples don’t expect help from the government when they’re old so they have kids who they expect will take care of them later on in life.

Low Taxation & Tax Evasion

Low tax revenues means that a government can only fund basic services such as policing, the courts and the armed forces. In order to provide universal healthcare, education, and a social safety net for all of a country’s residents, higher tax revenues are required. According to the UN, this can be achieved if a country’s tax revenues are at least 20% of their GDP [1]. If achieved, this would result in an increase in a society’s quality of life. The Human Development Index (HDI) [2] is a ranking of a society’s quality of life by country. The index groups countries into 4 categories. Following is a 2016 listing of those categories with a sampling of countries. The listing also shows each country’s 2015 tax revenue-to-GDP ratio [3]. Each country’s estimated 2017 GDP per capita per the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is also listed to give an idea of the average individual’s annual income for that country [4]. In addition, I note whether a country is an Islamic country.

[1] Why developing countries need to toughen up on taxes
[2] List of countries by Human Development Index
[3] List of countries by tax revenue to GDP ratio
[4] List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

RankCountryIslamicHDITax Revenue-to-GDP RatioGDP per capita
Very high human development
1Norway0.94954.8$70,590
2Australia0.93943.4$49,882
3Switzerland0.93927.8$61,360
4Germany0.92644.5$50,206
5Denmark0.92550.8$49,613
5Singapore0.92514.2$90,531
6Netherlands0.92439.8$53,582
7Ireland0.92330.8$72,632
8Iceland0.92140.4$52,150
9Canada0.92131.7$48,141
10United States0.92026.0$59,495
19Israel0.89936.8$36,250
30BruneiYes0.865?$76,743
33QatarYes0.8562.2$124,927
38Saudi ArabiaYes0.8475.3$55,263
42UAEYes0.8401.4$68,245
47BahrainYes0.8244.8$51,846
51KuwaitYes0.8001.5$69,669
High human development
59MalaysiaYes0.78915.5$28,871
69IranYes0.7746.1$20,030
71TurkeyYes0.76724.9$26,453
86JordanYes0.74121.1$12,487
90China0.73820.1$16,624
97TunisiaYes0.72514.9$11,987
102LibyaYes0.7162.7$9,792
Medium human development
111EgyptYes0.69115.8$12,994
113IndonesiaYes0.68912.0$12,378
123MoroccoYes0.64722.3$8,612
139BangladeshYes0.5798.5$4,561
147PakistanYes0.55011.0$5,354
Low human development
168YemenYes0.4827.1$2,300
169AfghanistanYes0.4796.4$1,889
187Niger0.35311.0$1,153

Interestingly, the top 10 countries with the highest quality of life are the countries that collect the most tax from their residents.

If we take the average tax revenue as a % of GDP for all countries in each category, we get the following table.

Country GroupAverage Tax Revenue as % of GDP
Top 10 Very High Human Development36.75
Very High Human Development31.92
High Human Development22.08
Medium Human Development17.09
Low Human Development15.08

Based on the two tables above, it appears that, in general, the more taxes a country collects (higher tax-revenue as % of GDP), the higher the quality of life of its residents.

In addition to higher taxation, tax policy should be progressive such that the poor do not may as much or more as middle and upper class people. Also, corporations and rich people should not be able to evade taxes using loopholes.

Case Studies

How China Went From Poor to Rich

China has 1.4 billion people. 1/5th of all humanity. Chinese was successful up until the 17th century when China closed its doors and decided it didn’t need Western gadgets. Many people ended up dying due to starvation. 14 million Chinese people died in WWII. Mao Tse Dong ruled China and closed all universities. Deng Xioping had a vision to make Chinese prosperous. His slogan was “To be rich is glorious”. Like Mao, he believed in that to ensure stability and to prosper, you needed one party rule. When Mao Tse Dong died in 1976, Deng asked to be in charge of China’s education and science. Deng allowed everyone to take university exams for free. The first exams started in December of 1977. 5.7 million people applied for exams but only 5% could be admitted. In 1978, Deng emerged as preeminent leader. In 1978, Deng went with a delegation of 30 people to Europe. He witnessed how advanced Europe was and how far back China had fallen behind. Deng then went to Singapore and Japan. He noticed that trains in Japan could travel at 210 kph whereas those in China could only go up to 60 kph. He saw robots making cars in Japan. Deng wanted Chinese people to see how people in Japan and Singapore lived so he showed them on TV. Chinese people were in shock to see Japanese people work and have their own refrigerators at home. China embarked on an economic and social experiment – mixing the Community command economy with the energy of capitalist enterprise. Chinese students were sent to foreign universities. There was a concern that Chinese students may not want to return to China. There was a huge investment and primary and secondary education – especially for women. By the early 80s, the signs of reform were everywhere from the schools to the cars on the streets where there were once only bicycles. The rural population of China had been moving to the cities at a rapid pace. In just 4 years, China’s agriculture, education and industry were reformed. Private business was allowed to flourish. China’s low production costs offered huge opportunities to the outside world. With it’s fast, expanding urban workforce, China’s GDP would increase nearly 70 times in 40 years. The Chinese way was a marriage of one party rule with capitalist enterprise. China didn’t want to be dependent anymore on outside people for technology.

Characteristics of Singapore

  • Education in Singapore is obligatory
  • Education is mostly free
  • Almost everyone in Singapore is literate
  • Real-life skills are prioritized
  • Singapore is a leader in science and reading
  • Teachers work longer days
  • No corruption

Find the Highest Paying Job With Lowest Education

Not everyone has specialized skills or the ability to get a 4 year degree or higher due to their unique circumstances. Though having a college education normally results in higher pay, you don’t always get paid more for having a higher education. One must wonder, then, what is the highest paying job for the lowest level of education. Fortunately, the US government collects labor data and provides a ton of information to help people compare careers, salaries, education requirements, and more. This information is updated regularly and available at the US Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook website.

https://www.bls.gov/ooh/

Here, we can search for careers starting from the lowest level of education up to a having a 2 year associate’s degree. With each search, we can filter by average annual salary. Here are the results. Occupations with salaries below $40,000 a year are excluded.

Education Level: No formal educational credential

2019 Median Annual SalaryNumber of Occupations
$80,000 or more0 occupations
$60,000 to $80,0002 occupations
e.g. artist, farm labor contractor
$40,000 to $60,00020 occupations
e.g. painter, carpet installer

The occupations in the results above are mostly manual labor jobs like carpentry, landscaping, cooking, construction, driving, farming, machine operating, etc.

Education Level: High school diploma or equivalent

2019 Median Annual SalaryNumber of Occupations
$80,000 or more8 occupations
e.g. airline pilot
$60,000 to $80,00030 occupations
e.g. train operator, police patrol
$40,000 to $60,000134 occupations
e.g. travel agent, clerk, typist

Education Level: Some college, not degree

2019 Median Annual SalaryNumber of Occupations
$80,000 or more0 occupations
$60,000 to $80,0000 occupations
$40,000 to $60,0002 occupations
e.g. bookkeeper, computer user

Education Level: Postsecondary non-degree award

2019 Median Annual SalaryNumber of Occupations
$80,000 or more1 occupation
Electrician
$60,000 to $80,0009 occupations
e.g. Court reporter, insurance appraiser, aircraft mechanic
$40,000 to $60,00020 occupations
e.g. dental assistant, auto mechanic, firefighter

Education Level: 2 Year Associate’s Degree

2019 Median Annual SalaryNumber of Occupations
$80,000 or more3 occupations
e.g. radiation therapist, air traffic controller
$60,000 to $80,00015 occupations
e.g. healthcare technician, computer specialist
$40,000 to $60,00025 occupations
e.g. technician, paralegal

Some conclusions

  • people with specialized skills get higher salaries
  • people working in healthcare tend to get higher salaries

Now, let’s see what we need to do to get the highest paying job in a growing field in each education category.

Education Level: High school diploma or equivalent

For this education level, the fastest growing occupation is “Airline or Commercial Pilot” with a 2019 Median Pay of $121,430 per year.

On the summary page for “Airline or Commercial Pilot” we find a link for how to become an airline pilot. We also find that airline pilots much have a 4 year bachelor’s degree so the information on commercial pilot salaries is not particularly accurate.

Education Level: Some college, not degree

For this education level, the fastest growing occupation is “Computer Support Specialist” with a 2019 Median Pay of $26.33 per hour or $54,760 per year.

On the summary page for “Computer Support Specialist” we find a link for how to become a computer support specialist. We see that due to the wide range of skills, there is no simple answer as one could get a certificate in a particular area or learn on their own.

Education Level: Postsecondary non-degree award

For this education level, there is only one occupation in the $80,000 more category. It is “Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers” with a 2019 Median Pay of $28.40 per hour or $59,080 per year. However, this occupation is in decline and not growing.

On the summary page for “Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers” we find a link for how to become a Electrical or Electronics Installer and Repairer. It looks like one would go to a vocational or apprenticeship school and take specific courses to become an electrician.
A Google search reveals that in California, you must be licensed and there are 5 types of licenses. You would need to enroll in a State-approved electrician trainee school. For example, one school located in San Leandro, California is called Alameda County Electrical JATC. This is a 5 year program includes 8000 hours of paid on-the-job training during the day and 900 hours of classroom instruction during day and evenings.

Costs:

  • $620 for books (first year)
  • $500 for tools
Electrician License Requirements by State | CoverWallet
An electrician

Education Level: 2 Year Associate’s Degree

For this education level, the fastest growing occupation is “Radiation Therapist” with a 2019 Median Pay of $41.14 per hour or $85,560 per year.

On the summary page for “Radiation Therapist” we find a link for how to become a Radiation Therapist. In most states, radiation therapists must be licensed or certified. Employers usually prefer to hire applicants who have an associate’s degree or a bachelor’s degree in radiation therapy. However, candidates may qualify for some positions by completing a certificate program. In 2016, there were about 110 accredited educational programs recognized by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT). There are many community colleges that offer 2 year programs such as this one at City College of San Francisco (CCSF).

Radiation Therapy | Allied Health | University of Nebraska Medical Center
Radiation Therapists

Summary of the Quran

This is a summary of the Quran sourced from Wikipedia. It may be inaccurate. Nevertheless, it can help give an idea of the topics in each chapter.

Chapter 1: Al Fatihah – The Opening

1 In the name of Allāh, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.
2 [All] praise is [due] to Allāh, Lord of the worlds –
3 The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful,
4 Sovereign of the Day of Recompense.
5 It is You we worship and You we ask for help.
6 Guide us to the straight path –
7 The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray.

Chapter 2: Al Baqarah – The Cow

1-20 Unbelievers and hypocrites reproved
21-38 Exhortation to the worship of the true God
39-102 Jews and Christians urged to accept the claim of Muhammad to be a prophet of God
102-112 The opposition of Jews and Christians to Muhammad’s prophetic pretensions combated
113 The doctrine of abrogation enunciated
115 A Qibla declared to be unnecessary
116-141The Jews denounced and the religion of Abraham declared to be the true Islam
142-153 The Jews finally abandoned and the Arabs accepted by the adoption of Makkah as the Qibla of Islam
154-163 The bereaved friends of those slain at the Battle of Badr comforted
164-172 Makkans exhorted to faith in God, and directed to observe the law respecting forbidden meats
173-176 Law concerning lawful and unlawful food (delivered at Madina)
177 The sum of Muslim duty
178-179 The law of retaliation
180-182 The law concerning bequests
183-185 The law concerning fasting
186-187 The fast of Ramadan
188-202 The pilgrimage to Makkah and war for the faith
203-206 Hypocrites and true believers contrasted
207-208 Exhortation to a hearty acceptance of Islam
209 The doom of infidels pronounced
210-212 The Jews reproached
213 Suffering to be patiently endured
214-242 Sundry laws relating to almsgiving, war, wine, lots, orphans, marriage, women, oaths, and divorce
243-253 The duty of warring in defence of religion enjoined by precept, and illustrated by the history of former prophets
254-257 The Throne Verse
258-260 The doctrine of the resurrection illustrated
261-274 Exhortation and encouragement to almsgiving
275-277 Usury forbidden
278-284 The law concerning contracts and debts
285-286 The prophet’s confession and prayer

Chapter 3: Al Imran – The Family of Imran

1-2 God one and self-existent
3-4 The Quran to be believed
5-6 God omniscient
7 Plain and obscure verses of the Quran
8-9 The prayer of those versed in Quranic mystery
10-12 The punishment of Pharaoh a warning to infidels
13 The victory at the Battle of Badr alluded to
14-18 The faithful, their character and reward
19-20 Islam the true religion
21-25 The punishment of unbelievers eternal
26-27 God omnipotent and sovereign
28-34 Obedience to God enjoined
35-38 The Virgin Mary – her conception – nurtured by Zacharias
39-41 John the Baptist, his birth
42-57 Christ announced to the Virgin – his miracles, apostles etc
58-65 Muhammad’s dispute with the Christians of Najran
66-77 The hypocritical Jews reproached
78-83 Prophets not to be worshipped
84-91 God’s curse on infidels
92 Almsgiving enjoined
93-95 The Jews unlawfully forbid certain meats
96-97 The Kaabah founded
98-105 Muslims are warned against the friendship of Jews etc
106-109 The lot of infidels and believers contrasted
110-112 Muslims safe from the enmity of Jews and Christians
113-115 Certain believing Jews commended for their faith
116-120 Muslims not to make friends of Jews and Christians
121-122 The battle of Uhud alluded to
123-129 Disheartened Muslims encouraged
130-136 Usury forbidden
137-138 The doom of defamers of the apostles
139-144 Islam not dependent on Muhammad for success
145-148 The former prophets are examples of perseverance
149-151 Unbelievers to be avoided
152-154 Certain Muslims disobedient at Uhud
155-157 The hypocrites rebuked
158-159 Muslims slain at Uhud to enter paradise
160-161 Mild treatment of vacillating Muslims
162-165 The spoils of war to be honestly divided
166-169 The faithful sifted by defeat at Uhud
170-172 The joy of the Uhud martyrs in paradise
173-176 Certain Muslims commended for faithfulness
177-180 The fate of unbelievers
181 The miser’s doom
182-190 Scoffing Jews denounced—they charge Muhammad with imposture
191-195 Meditations and prayers of the pious
196-198 God’s answer to the prayers of the pious
199 Certain believing Jews and Christians commended
200 Exhortation to patience and perseverance

Chapter 4: An-Nisa’ – The Women

1 Man and his Creator
2-5 Orphans, the duty of guardians to such
6-13 The law of inheritance
14-15 The punishment of adulteresses
16-17 Repentance enjoined
18-19 Women’s rights
20-27 Forbidden and lawful degrees in marriage
28-30 Gaming, rapine, and suicide forbidden
31-33 Man’s superiority over woman recognised
34 Reconcilement of man and wife
35-36 Parents, orphans, the poor etc to be kindly treated
37-41 Hypocrisy in almsgiving condemned
42 Prayer forbidden to the drunken and polluted
43-45 Jewish mockers denounced
46-53 Idolatry the unpardonable sin
54-55 The rewards of faith and unbelief
56 Trusts to be faithfully paid back
57-68 Disputes to be settled by God and his Apostle
69-74 Precautions, &c., in warring for the faith
75-84 The disobedient and cowardly reproved
85 Salutations to be returned
86-90 Treatment of hypocrites and apostates
91-93 Believers not to be slain or plundered
94-99 Believers in heathen countries to fly to Muslim lands
100-102 Special order for prayer in time of war
103 Exhortation to zeal for Islam
104-114,
133 Fraud denounced
115-125 Idolatry and Islam compared
126 Equity in dealing with women and orphans enjoined
127-129 Wives to be subject to the will of husbands
130-132 God to be feared
134-138 Muslims exhorted to steadfastness
139-143 Hypocrites to be shunned
144-151 The reward of hypocrisy and belief compared
152-154 Presumptuous and disobedient Jews destroyed
155-158 The Jews defame Mary and Jesus
159-160 Certain kinds of food forbidden to Jews as punishment
161-168 Muhammad’s inspiration like that of other prophets
169-174 Christians reproved for their faith in Jesus as the Son of God and in the doctrine of the Trinity
175 The law of inheritance for distant relatives

Chapter 5: Al-Ma’idah – The Table

1 Covenants are to be fulfilled
2 Lawful meats
3 Heathen pilgrims not to be molested
4 Islam completed—last revelation of the Quran
4-5 Certain kinds of food, gaming, and lots forbidden
6 Muslims permitted to eat the food of Jews and Christians, and to marry their women
7 The law of purifications
8 Believers reminded of the covenant of Aqabah
9-11 Muslims should forget old quarrels with brethren
12 God’s favour to Muslims
13-15 Disobedience of Jews and Christians exposed
16-18 Jews and Christians are exhorted to accept Islam
19-20 The divinity of Christ denied
21 Jews and Christians not the children of God
22 Muhammad sent as a warner
23-29 Israel’s rebellion at Kadesh Barnea
30-34 The story of Cain and Abel
35-36 The sin of homicide
37-38 The punishment of theft accompanied by apostasy
39 The faithful exhorted to fight for religion
40-41 The punishment of infidels
42-44 The penalty of theft
45-55 Muhammad to judge the Jews and Christians by the law, gospel, and the Quran
56 Muslims forbidden to fraternise with Jews and Christians
57-58 Hypocrites threatened
59-61 Believers warned and instructed
62-63 Muslims not to associate with infidels
64-65 The Jews exhorted and warned
66-69 The hypocrisy and unbelief of the Jews rebuked
70 Promises to believing Jews and Christians
71 Muhammad required to preach
72 He attests Jewish and Christian Scriptures
73 Believing Jews, Sabeans, and Christians to be saved
74-75 The Jews rejected and killed the prophets of God
76-81 The doctrines of the Trinity and Christ’s Sonship rejected
82-84 Disobedient Jews cursed by their prophets
85-88 Jewish hatred and Christian friendship compared
89-90 Muslims to use lawful food etc
91 Expiation for perjury
92-94 Wine and lots forbidden
95-97 Law concerning hunting and gaming during pilgrimage
98-100 Pilgrimage and its rites enjoined
101-102 The Prophet not to be pestered with questions
102-104 Heathen Arab customs denounced
105-107 Wills to be attested by witnesses
108 The prophets ignorant of the characters of their followers
109-110 Jesus—his miracles—God’s favour to him
111 The apostles of Jesus were Muslims
112-114 A table provided by Jesus for the apostles
115-118 Jesus did not teach his followers to worship him and his mother
119 The reward of the true believer
120 God is sovereign

Chapter 6: Al-An’am – The Cattle

1-3 Praise to the Almighty and Omniscient Creator
4-5 The wilful unbelief of the Makkah infidels
6 They are threatened with the divine judgment
7 The people of Makkah hopelessly unbelieving
8-9 Why angels were not sent to the infidels
10-11 Those who rejected the former prophets were punished
12-18 Why the true God should be served
19 God the witness between Muhammad and the infidels
20 The Jews recognise Muhammad as a prophet
21-23 Idolaters on the judgment-day—their condition
24-29 Scoffing idolaters rebuked and threatened
30-31 The condition of believers and unbelievers after death
32-33 Unbelievers make God a liar
33 God’s word and purposes unchangeable
34 Miracles of no avail to convince infidels
35 God will raise the dead to life
36 Why God did not grant the signs asked by unbelievers
37 Animals and birds to be brought into judgment
38 Infidels are deaf and dumb
39-40 Idolaters will call upon God in their distress
41-44 Adversity and prosperity alike unmeaning to infidels
45 God is the only helper in trouble
46-48 Unbelievers, if impenitent, sure to perish
49 Muhammad unacquainted with the secrets of God
50 There shall be no intercessor on the judgment-day
51-54 The motives of professing Muslims not to be judged
55-57 Muhammad declines the proposals of idolaters
58-61 God the Omniscient and Sovereign Ruler
62-64 God the Almighty Deliverer
65 Muhammad charged with imposture
66 Unbelievers will certainly be punished
67-69 Mockers to be avoided by Muslims
70-71 The punishment of idolaters certain and dreadful
71-74 Muslims commanded to obey God only
75-84 Abraham’s testimony against idolatry
85-91 The prophets who succeeded Abraham
92 The unbelieving Jews (of Madína) rebuked
93 The Quran confirms the former Scriptures
94 The fate of those who forge Scriptures
95 Idolaters deserted by their gods on the judgment-day
96-100 The God of nature the true God
101-103 God has no offspring
104-105 God’s favour in sending the Quran
106-108 The command to retire from Makkah
109 Muhammad not permitted to work miracles
110-113 The people of Makkah given over to unbelief
114 Muhammad the prophet of God
114-117 The direction of Muslims and idolaters contrasted
118-121 Law of permitted and forbidden meats
122 The righteous and unbelievers compared
122-125 Wicked leaders of the people—conduct and punishment
126-127 The blessedness of the faithful
128-130 God’s threatenings against unbelieving men and genii
131 God always warns men before punishing idolatry
132-133 Rewards and punishments shall be according to works
134 The punishment of unbelievers certain
135-136 The idolaters of Makkah rebuked
137-139 Evil customs of the Quraish exposed
140 The idolaters of Makkah threatened
141 The fruit of trees to be eaten
142-144 Controversy between the Quraish and Muhammad concerning forbidden meats referred to
145 The law concerning forbidden meats rehearsed
146 The Jewish law of forbidden meats
147 God will punish those who accuse the prophets of imposture
148-149 The idolaters of Makkah are reprobate
150 Their testimony unworthy of credit
151-153 Forbidden things rehearsed
154-157 The Quran attests the teaching of Moses and Jesus
158 The fate of the wicked on the judgment-day
159 Sectaries reproved
160 The reward of the righteous and wicked compared
161-162 Islam the true religion
163 Muhammad’s self-consecration to God
164-165 The idolaters exhorted to believe in God

Chapter 7: Al-Araf – The Heights

1-2 Muhammad not to doubt the Quran
3 The people exhorted to believe in it
4-5 Many cities destroyed for their unbelief
6-9 Prophets and their hearers on the judgment-day
10 The ingratitude of infidels
11 The creation of Adam
11-12 Satan refuses to worship Adam
13 He is driven from Paradise
14-15 He is respited until the resurrection
16-17 He avows his purpose to beguile man
18-19 God threatens Satan and his victims
20-24 The fall of Adam and Eve
25-26 They are expelled from Paradise
27-29 Indecent customs condemned
30-31 God to be sought in prayer
32-34 True worshippers to be decently clad
35 Every nation has a fixed term of life
36-42 The doom of those who reject the apostles of God
43-45 The blessed reward of true believers
45-46 God’s curse on the infidels
47-50 The veil of Aráf and its inhabitants
51-52 The rejecters of God’s apostles to be forgotten
53-54 A warning against rejecting Muhammad
55-59 The Creator and Lord of the worlds to be served
60-65 Noah rejected by his people—their fate
66-73 Húd rejected by the Ádites—their fate
74-80 Sálih rejected by the Thamúdites—their destruction
81-85 Lot rejected and the Sodomites destroyed
86-94 Shuaib rejected by the Madianites, and their doom
95-96 Unbelievers at Makkah unaffected either by adversity or prosperity
97-101 The dreadful fate of those cities who rejected the apostles of God and charged them with imposture
102-103 They are reprobated
104-105 Moses is sent to Pharaoh and his princes
106-108 The miracles of the serpent and leprous hand
109-115 The magicians of Egypt called
116-120 Contest by miracles between Moses and the magicians
121-123 Several magicians converted to Moses
124-127 Pharaoh’s anger kindled against them
128 Pharaoh and his princes persecute Moses and his people
129-130 Moses exhorts his people to patient trust in God
131-132 Adversity and prosperity alike unavailing to bring Pharaoh to repentance
133-134 The Egyptian unbelievers plagued
135 The hypocrisy of the Egyptians
136 They are destroyed in the Red Sea
137 The people of Moses triumph, and possess the eastern and western land
138-141 The children of Israel become idolatrous
142 Moses makes Aaron his deputy, and fasts forty days
143 He desires to see the glory of God, but repents his rashness
144-145 God gives Moses the law on two tables
146-147 Infidels threatened for calling their prophets impostors
148 The people of Moses worship the golden calf
149 They repent their sin
150 Moses in indignation assaults Aaron
151 He prays for forgiveness for himself and Aaron
152 He calls for vengeance on the idolaters
153 God merciful to believers
154 Moses’s anger is appeased
155 He chooses seventy elders
155-156 Moses prays for deliverance from destruction by lightning
156-159 The Illiterate Prophet foretold by Moses
160 Some Jews rightly directed
161 The Israelites divided into twelve tribes
161 The rock smitten, and manna and quails given
162-163 The command to enter the city saying Hittatun, and the fate of the disobedient
164-167 The Sabbath-breakers changed into apes
168-169 Dispersion of the Jews among the nations
170-171 Some of their successors faithful to the law of Moses
172 God shakes Mount Sinai over the Israelites
173-175 God’s covenant with the children of Adam
176-179 The curse of Balaam a warning to infidels
180 Many genii and men created for hell
181-182 The names of God not to be travestied
183-184 God’s method of leading infidels to destruction
185 Muhammad not possessed of a devil
186 No hope for the reprobate
187 The coming of the “last hour” sudden
188 Muhammad no seer, only a preacher
189-190 Adam and Eve were guilty of idolatry
191-198 The folly of idolatry
199 Muhammad commanded to use moderation
200-201 He is to repel Satan by using the name of God
202 The people of Makkah incorrigible
203 They charge Muhammad with imposture
204-206 The Qurán to be listened to in silence and holy meditation

Chapter 8: Al-Anfal – The Spoils

1 Spoils belong to God and his Apostle
2-4 True believers and their future reward
5-6 Muslims reproved for distrusting their Prophet
7 God gives the Muslims either the Quraish or their caravan
8 The victory of Badr a seal to Islam
9 Angelic aid vouchsafed to Muhammad
10-11 The Muslims refreshed and comforted before the battle
12 The angels enjoined to comfort the faithful by destroying the infidel Quraish
13-14 Infidels are doomed to punishment here and hereafter
15-16 Muslims are never to turn their backs on the infidels on pain of hell-fire
17-18 The victory of Badr a miracle
19 The Quraish are warned against further warfare with the Muslims
20-21 Muslims exhorted to steadfastness in faith
22-23 Infidels compared to deaf and dumb brutes
24 Believers are to submit themselves to God and his Apostle
25-28 They are warned against civil strife, deception, and treachery
29 God’s favour to true believers
30 Plots against Muhammad frustrated by God
31 The infidels liken the Quran to fables
32-33 The Quraish were protected from deserved punishment by Muhammad’s presence among them
34-38 The idolaters of Mecca rebuked and threatened
39 An amnesty offered to the Quraish
40-41 Impenitent idolaters to be extirpated from the earth
42 How the spoils of war are to be divided
43-44 The Muslims were led by God to fight at Badr to attest the truth of Islam
45-46 The Muslims encouraged, and the infidels lured to destruction, by each seeing the other to be few in number
47-48 Believers exhorted to obedience
49 Believers warned against impious vainglory
50 The devil deserts the Quraish at Badr
51-53 The fate of hypocrites
54-56 Their doom like that of Pharaoh and his people
57 The worst of beasts are the infidels
58-60 Treachery to be met with its like
61 God is against the infidels
62 The Muslims excited to war against unbelievers
63 Condition of peace with unbelievers
64 The miracle of Arab union
65-66 God with the Prophet and the Muslims in warring for the faith
68-70 Muslims reproved for accepting ransom for the captives taken at Badr
71 Captive Quraish exhorted to accept Islam, and warned against deception
73-75 The brotherhood of the Ansárs and Muháj Jirín
76 The hereditary rights of blood-relations re-established

Chapter 9: At-Tawbah – The Repentance

1-2 Four months’ immunity proclaimed to idolaters
3-5 After four months, all idolaters to be slain, with exception of those with whom treaties have been made
5-6 Ignorant idolaters to be taught the religion of Islam, after which, if they repent, they are to be spared alive
7 No new league to be made with idolaters
8-10 Idolaters are not to be trusted
11 Penitent idolaters to be regarded as brethren
13-16 Muslims exhorted to fight against the truce-breakers of Makkah
17-18 All but Muslims to be excluded from the sacred temples
19 Abbás rebuked for his vainglory
20-22 The Muhájjirín assigned the first rank among Muslims—their reward
23-24 True believers to refuse friendship with nearest kin if they be infidels
25-27 The victory of Hunain due to God’s help
28 Idolaters excluded from the Kaabah
29 The Jews and Christians as well as idolaters to be attacked
30 Jews and Christians reproved for applying the epithet “Son of God” to Ezra and Jesus
31-32 They also worship their priests and monks
33 Islam superior to all other religions
34-35 Stingy Muslims likened to covetous monks—their punishment
36 Infidels may be attacked in sacred months
37 The sacred months not to be transferred
38-41 Muslims exhorted to go on expedition to Tabúq by reference to God’s help to Muhammad and Abu Baqr in the cave
42 The lukewarm Muslims rebuked for wishing to stay at home
43 Muhammad rebuked for excusing some of these from going
44-46 Willingness to fight for Muhammad, a test of faith
47-50 Seditious Muslims rebuked
51-52 The sure reward of the faithful
53-55 God refuses the offerings of infidels and hypocrites
55 The wealth and prosperity of infidels a sign of their reprobation
56-57 Half-hearted Muslims reproved
58-59 Those who had spread libellous reports regarding Muhammad’s use of alms rebuked
60 How alms should be expended
61-69 Grumblers and hypocrites threatened
70 They are warned by the example of the wicked in former ages
71-73 The faithful described—their rewards
74-75 Hypocrites denounced and threatened
76-79 Prosperity of infidels a prelude to their destruction
80 God shall scoff at the scoffers
81 The defamers of the faithful shall never be forgiven
82-84 Punishment of the “stayers at home”
85 Muhammad forbidden to pray at the grave of unbelievers and hypocrites
86-88 The Prophet not to wonder at the prosperity of the wicked
89-90 Reward of those who assist the Apostle in his wars
91 Hypocritical Arabs of the desert reproved
92-93 Who may lawfully remain at home in time of war
94-97 Other hypocrites reproved
98-99 The Baduín, the worst of hypocrites
100 Some of them true believers
101 The reward of the Ansars and Muhájjirín
102 The desert Arabs and some of the people of Madína reproved
103-106 The penitent confessors in Madína are pardoned
107 Others await God’s decision in their case
108-111 Denunciation against those who built a Masjid in opposition to Muhammad and his faithful ones
112-113 True believers are sold to God
114 Muslims not to pray for idolatrous relatives
115 Why Abraham prayed for his idolatrous parents
116-118 God merciful to the faithful
119 The three recreant Ansars pardoned
120-122 The people of Madína rebuked for want of loyalty to Muhammad
123 Some believers excused from going to war
124 True believers to war against neighbouring infidels and hypocrisy
125-128 Reproof of those who doubt the revelations of God and Muhammad
129-130 The Apostle trusts in the help of God

Chapter 10: Yunus – Jonah

1-2 The Makkans charge their Prophet with sorcery because he is a man from among them
3 The Creator and Ruler of the universe the only true God
4 Believers rewarded at death for good deeds
4 Unbelievers punished after death
5-6 God’s works are signs to all men
7-11 Rewards and punishments of the faithful and the unbelieving
12 God’s purpose in prospering the wicked
13 Men pray to God in affliction, but forget Him with the return of prosperity
14-15 The people of Makkah warned by the example of former generations
16-18 The Quraish desire a different Quran — Muhammad protests his inability to alter it
19 Idolaters trust intercessors who can neither profit nor harm them
20 All men originally professed one religion
21 The people demand of Muhammad a sign
22 When men despise the judgments of God he threatens greater suffering
23-24 Unbelievers remember God in distress by land and sea, but forget Him when delivered
25 Life likened to water which sustains vegetable life
26-28 Paradise for Muslims and hell for the infidels
29-31 Idolaters will be deserted by their gods in the judgment-day
32-37 Idolaters exhorted to worship him whom they recognise as their Creator, Preserver, and Governor
38 The Quran no forgery; it confirms the former Scriptures
39-40 Those who charge Muhammad with imposture challenged to produce a chapter like it
41 Some believe in the Quran, others reject it
42-47 The unbelieving Quraish declared to be reprobate
48 An apostle is sent to every nation
49 Unbelievers mock at the threatenings of their prophet
50 Every nation has its fixed period of existence
51-55 Infidels will believe when their punishment comes upon them
56-57 God is the Author of life and death
58-59 The Quran an admonition and direction to the unbelievers
60-61 Lawful food not to be prohibited
62 Muhammad ever under Divine guidance
63-65 The blessedness of those who believe and fear God
66-68 Unbelievers cannot harm the Prophet
69-71 Those rebuked who say that God hath begotten children
72-75 Muhammad likened to Noah and other prophets
76 Moses and Aaron sent to Pharaoh and his princes
77-82 They are rejected as sorcerers and perverters of the national religion
83 A few of the people only believe on them
84-86 Moses and Aaron with the believers put their trust in God
87 The Israelites commanded to be constant in prayer to God
88-89 Moses’s prayer, that God would destroy the Egyptians, is heard
90 Pharaoh and his people drowned in the sea
90-92 He repents and is raised out of the sea for a sign to the people
93 The Israelites are provided with a habitation and blessing
94-95 Jews and Christians appealed to in confirmation of the statements of the Quran
96-98 No kind of miracle will suffice to make the reprobate believe
99-103 Infidels do not believe on Muhammad because God does not permit them to do so
104-107 The people of Makkah exhorted to accept the true orthodox faith
108 Muhammad not responsible for the faith or unbelief of the people
109 The Prophet exhorted to be patient

Kekeliruan Bahwa Keturunan Nabi Muhammad Lebih Unggul Dari Semua Orang Lain

Artikel ini adalah terjemahan dari versi asli bahasa Inggris.

Ada sekelompok orang yang percaya bahwa mereka adalah keturunan Nabi Muhammad. Istilah populer yang digunakan untuk orang-orang ini adalah “Sayyid” (tunggal) atau “Sadah” (jamak). Ini juga sering ditulis “Syed”. Keturunan Muhammad melalui ibu mereka tetapi bukan ayah disebut sebagai “Mirza”. Meskipun statistik yang dapat diandalkan tidak ada, perkiraan konservatif jumlah Sayyid mencapai puluhan juta. Sayyid dapat ditemukan di seluruh dunia termasuk negara2 yang berikut ini.

Irak
Keluarga Sayyid di Irak sangat banyak sehingga ada buku yang ditulis khusus untuk mendaftar keluarga2nya dan menghubungkan mereka.

Iran
Sayyid ditemukan dalam jumlah besar di Iran. Kepala “Organisasi Nasional untuk Pencatatan Sipil” Iran menyatakan bahwa lebih dari 6 juta orang Iran adalah Sayyid.

Oman
Di Oman, gelar Sayyid digunakan oleh anggota keluarga kerajaan penguasa Al Said. Anggota keluarga besar atau anggota karena perkawinan menyandang gelar Sayyid atau Sayyida untuk perempuan. Gelar semacam itu di Oman diwariskan melalui garis keturunan ayah atau dalam beberapa keadaan luar biasa, seperti gelar kehormatan yang diberikan oleh keputusan kerajaan.

Libya
Para Sayyid di Libya adalah Sunni, termasuk bekas keluarga kerajaan, yang aslinya adalah Zaidi-Maroko (juga dikenal sebagai keluarga Senussi).

Yaman
Di Yaman, Sayyid lebih dikenal sebagai sadah; mereka juga disebut sebagai Hashemites (Bani Hashem). Praktik keagamaan mereka adalah Syiah, Sunni, dan Sufi. Keluarga Sayyid di Yaman termasuk Rassid, Qasimid, Mutawakkilites, Hamideddin, beberapa Al-Zaidi dari Ma’rib, Sana’a, dan Sa’dah, keluarga Ba ‘Alawi sada di Hadhramaut, Al-Wazir dari Sana’ a, Al-Shammam dari Sa’dah, Sufyan dari Juban, dan Al-Jaylani dari Juban.

Yamani Ba ‘Alawi
Istilah Ba’ Alawi (باعلوي) yang dalam dialek Yaman adalah kependekan dari Bani ‘Alawi, yang berarti “kaum atau keturunan ‘Alawi”.

Keluarga Ba ‘Alawi sada menelusuri garis keturunan mereka ke Sayyid al-Imam Ahmad al-Muhajir bin Isa ar-Rumi lahir pada tahun 873 (260H), yang beremigrasi dari Basra ke Hadhramaut pada tahun 931 (320H) untuk menghindari kekerasan sektarian, termasuk invasi pasukan Qaram ke dalam Kekhalifahan Abbasiyah. Cucu Imam al-Muhajir, Alawi, adalah Sayyid pertama yang lahir di Hadhramaut, dan satu-satunya keturunan Imam al-Muhajir yang menghasilkan garis lanjutan; garis keturunan cucu Imam al-Muhajir lainnya, Basri dan Jadid, terputus setelah beberapa generasi. Oleh karena itu, keturunan Imam Al-Muhajir di Hadhramaut memegang nama Bā ‘Alawi (“keturunan ‘Alawi”). Ba ‘Alawi Sadah sejak itu tinggal di Hadhramaut di Yaman Selatan, mempertahankan aliran Sunni di sekolah fiqh Syafi’i. Pada mulanya keturunan Imam Ahmad Muhajir yang menjadi ulama di bidang Islam disebut Imam, kemudian Syekh, namun kemudian dipanggil Habib (kekasih).

Asia Selatan
Pada tahun 1901 jumlah Sayyid (Syed) di India (dibawah penjajahan Inggris) dihitung 1.339.734. Perkiraan terbaru menunjukkan bahwa di India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, dan Nepal terdapat lebih dari 15 juta Sayyid: 8 juta di Pakistan, 7 juta di India, lebih dari 1 juta di Bangladesh, dan sekitar tujuh puluh ribu di Nepal.

Asia Tenggara
Sebagian besar Sayyid Alawi yang pindah ke Asia Tenggara adalah keturunan Ali ibn Husain Zayn al-Abidin, terutama Ba ‘Alawi sada, banyak di antaranya adalah keturunan pendatang dari Hadhramaut. Meskipun mereka diduga sebagai keturunan Husain, tidak biasa para Sayyid perempuan disebut Sayyidah; mereka lebih sering disebut Sharifah. Kebanyakan dari mereka tinggal di Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapura, Provinsi Moro di Filipina, Pattani dan Kamboja. Banyak keluarga kerajaan di wilayah ini seperti keluarga kerajaan Filipina sebelumnya (Kesultanan Sulu, Kesultanan Maguindanao, Konfederasi Kesultanan Ranao), Singapura (Kesultanan Singapura), Malaysia (Kesultanan Johor dan Perlis), Indonesia (Kesultanan Siak, Pontianak, Gowa, beberapa Kesultanan Jawa), dan keluarga kerajaan Brunei (Rumah Bolkiah) yang ada juga adalah Sayyid, terutama dari Ba’Alawi.

Beberapa nama keluarga dari Sayyid ini adalah al-Saqqaf, Shihab (atau Shahab), al-Aidaroos, al-Habsyi (atau al-Habshi), al-Kaff, al-Aththos, al-Haddad, al-Jufri (atau al- Jifri), al-Muhdhar, al-Shaikh Abubakar, al-Qadri, al-Munawwar.

Kekaisaran Ottoman
Di Kekaisaran Ottoman, keturunan Muhammad adalah semacam bangsawan dengan hak istimewa mengenakan turban hijau.

Apakah Sayyid Benar-benar Keturunan Nabi Muhammad?

Studi genetik Sayyid dari India

Penulis studi “Kromosom Y dari Syed di India” menunjukkan bahwa kromosom Y dari Syed yang diidentifikasi sendiri dari India dan Pakistan tidak beda beragamnya dari yang bukan Syed dari wilayah yang sama. Ini menunjukkan bahwa status Syed, daripada benar-benar turun melalui ayah, mungkin turun lewat rute lain. Di samping itu, tidak ada dasar biologis untuk mendukung keyakinan bahwa Syed yang di India dan Pakistan memiliki keturunan yg sama baru-baru ini.

Penipu

Di Kekaisaran Ottoman, pengecualian pembayaran pajak untuk orang Sayyid mendorong banyak orang untuk membeli sertifikat keturunan atau memalsukan silsilah; Fenomena teseyyüd – yaitu secara bohong mengklaim seseorang sebagai keturunan bangsawan – menyebar melintasi batas etnis, kelas, dan agama. Pada abad ke-17, seorang birokrat Utsmaniyah memperkirakan ada 300.000 penipu. Di Anatolia abad ke-18, hampir semua orang di kota besar di kelas atas mengaku dirinya sebagai keturunan Muhammad.

Keturunan campuran

Meskipun banyak Sayyid mengklaim bangsawan dan keunggulan karena garis keturunan mereka dengan Nabi Muhammad, kebanyakan Sayyid hanya dapat mengklaim keturunan melalui ayah. Orang Sayyid sering menikah dengan orang Arab yang bukan Sayyid dan bahkan orang yang bukan Arab sama sekali sehingga mereka memiliki sangat sedikit jejak genetik Nabi Muhammad. Tidak mengherankan, sebagian besar Sayyid, seperti Ba’Alawi di Asia Tenggara, bertampang campuran Asia dan Arab atau sepenuhnya Asia. Berikut adalah beberapa Sayyid Ba’Alawi yang terkenal menurut https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba_%27Alawi_sada yang bermuka Indonesia atau campuran Arab dan Indonesia.

Abdullah bin Alwi Alatas
Pedagang
Drs. Kyai Hajji Habib Ali Alwi bin Thohir Al Husainy 
Politisi Indonesia
Habib Bahar bin Smith 
Pengkhotbah Indonesia
Fadel Muhammad Alhaddar
Mantan menteri kelautan dan perikanan Indonesia
Husein Aidid
Penulis lagu Indonesia
Mahdi Fahri Albaar
Pemain Sepakbola Indonesia
Mahmud Badaruddin II
Sultan Kesultanan Palembang, Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia
Raden Saleh
Pelukis terkenal di Hindia Belanda
Radin Inten II
Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia
Syarif Kasim II of Siak
Sultan ke-12 Kesultanan Siak Sri Indrapura
Umay Shahab
Aktor Indonesia

Keunggulan Sayyid

Kebanyakan Muslim menganggap Nabi Muhammad lebih unggul dari semua nabi lainnya. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan fakta bahwa hampir setiap masjid di dunia memiliki dua nama yang diletakkan berdampingan di dindingnya, yaitu nama “Muhammad” dan “Allah” (bahasa Arab untuk “Tuhan”). Sangat jarang Anda akan melihat nama-nama nabi lain seperti Ibrahim, Musa dan Yesus. Yang menarik, nama Muhammad sering berukuran sama dan tingginya sama dengan nama Tuhan, seolah-olah menunjukkan bahwa Muhammad sederajat dengan Tuhan, walaupun itu jelas-jelas bertentangan dengan keyakinan dasar Islam, tapi itu masalah yang berbeda dari topik artikel ini.

Masjid Hagia Sofia di Istanbul, Turki menunjukkan nama “Muhammad” di kiri dan “Allah” (Tuhan) di kanan.

Dengan meyakini keunggulan Muhammad, sebagian keturunan Nabi Muhammad dan bahkan Muslim lainnya menganggap Sayyid sebagai orang yang mulia yang agak lebih unggul dari orang lain. Misalnya, di kekaisaran Ottoman, pengecualian pembayaran pajak diberikan kepada orang Sayyid. Di Indonesia, banyak pelajar Islam pribumi Indonesia akan sujud dan mencium tangan Sayyid bahkan jika orang Sayyid itu seorang Muslim yang tidak mempraktekkan ibadah Islam.

Bukti lebih lanjut bahwa Sayyid menganggap diri mereka sebagai kelompok yang lebih unggul berasal dari pilihan mereka dalam pasangan nikah (atau pilihan pasangan nikah oleh orang tua untuk anak-anak mereka).

Di India, keluarga Sayyid tradisional jarang menikah di luar komunitas mereka dan menekankan pernikahan dengan Najeeb Altarfain (keturunan Sayyid dari sisi ibu dan ayah). Namun, tekanan endogami (pernikahan dalam suatu kaum) ini mulai menurun di antara keluarga-keluarga yang di kota-kota besar, dengan peningkatan eksogami (pernikahan diluar suatu kaum) dengan kelompok lain seperti Syaikh dan Mughal.

Di Indonesia sendiri saya tahu bahwa banyak Sayyid Ba’Alawi yang ngotot menikahi Sayyid Ba’Alawi lainnya, apalagi kalau orang Sayyid itu perempuan karena garis keturunannya diambil dari ayah, bukan ibu. Ironisnya, Nabi Muhammad sendiri tidak memiliki anak laki-laki, hanya seorang anak perempuan, namun banyak Sayyid menggunakan garis keturunan patrilineal (dari ayah) dalam silsilah keluarga mereka yang menghubungkan mereka dengan nabi.

Pernikahan

Untuk melanjutkan keturunan patrilineal mereka kepada nabi Muhammad dan rasa kebangsawanan dan keunggulan anak-anak mereka, orang Sayyid perempuan harus menikah dengan Sayyid lain. Sayangnya, menikahi seseorang berdasarkan nama keluarga dan bukan karena kecocokan cenderung berakhir dengan kekecewaan dan/atau perceraian. 

Perempuan Sayyid menikahi laki-laki Sayyid

Dalam satu contoh, seorang Sayyid Ba’alawi perempuan yang saya kenal menikah dengan laki-laki Sayyid Ba’alawi yang ternyata bersifat keras dan bahkan mengancam akan membunuhnya. Itu jelas bukan perilaku yang mulia atau perilaku Nabi Muhammad.

Dalam contoh lain, seorang perempuan Ba’alawi Sayyid menikah dengan laki-laki Ba’alawi Sayyid yang adalah sepupunya. Pria itu kemudian menikah dengan wanita lain keturunan Arab tapi bukan Ba’Alawi sehingga memiliki dua istri. Istri pertama menolak pernikahan kedua dan melarikan diri. Lama lama, istri kedua menceraikan suaminya. Istri pertama, yang tidak pernah bekerja, bergantung pada suaminya sehingga akhirnya dia kembali kepadanya. Sekarang, mereka tinggal bersama tetapi tidur di kamar terpisah dan tidak berbicara satu sama lain.

Dalam contoh lain, seorang perempuan Ba’alawi Sayyid yang saya kenal menikah dengan Sayyid Ba’alawi tanpa mereka pernah bertemu secara langsung sebelum hari pernikahan mereka. Bahkan ada dukungan dan tekanan untuk pernikahan ini dari kedua keluarga seolah-olah pernikahan antara dua Sayyid adalah jaminan kesuksesan dan kebahagiaan. Maka tidak mengherankan bahwa pernikahan ini berakhir dengan perceraian setelah 10 tahun. Perempuan itu sekarang berusia 40an, tidak punya anak meski ingin punya anak, dan merasa sulit untuk menikah lagi.

Seorang perempuan Arab non-Sayyid menikah dengan laki-laki Sayyid

Beberapa perempuan non-Sayyid mungkin merasa bangga menikah dengan pria Sayyid supaya anak mereka dapat menjadi Sayyid. Meskipun orang Sayyid mungkin menganggap diri mereka superior, mereka sebenarnya hanyalah orang biasa. Seperti orang lain, ada orang Sayyid yang baik dan ada yang buruk. Saya kenal sama seorang wanita non-Sayyid yang menikahi dua Sayyid Ba’alawi. Dia menceraikan suami pertama setelah satu minggu dan menceraikan suami kedua setelah dapat 6 anak. Dia tidak pernah menikah lagi. Meskipun dia mungkin merasa bangga bahwa anak-anaknya adalah Sayyid dari pihak ayah, dia mungkin lebih kecewa karena pernikahannya gagal.

Seorang perempuan Sayyid menikah dengan laki-laki non-Arab, non-Sayyid

Kadang-kadang, seorang perempuan Sayyid menikah dengan non-Arab non-Sayyid. Ini terjadi pada saudara perempuan teman Ba’alawi Sayyid saya. Dia ingin menikah dengan orang Indonesia pribumi. Karena pernikahan ini tidak dapat diterima oleh keluarganya perempuan, sayangnya hanya sedikit orang yang menghadiri pernikahan dari pihak Sayyid. Mayoritas tamu pernikahan itu dari pihak pengantin pria.

Laki-laki Sayyid menikahi perempuan non-Arab dan non-Sayyid

Ada juga kasus di mana orang tua Sayyid memaksa anak laki-laki mereka menikah dengan perempuan Sayyid tetapi anak laki-laki mereka tidak mau. Dalam satu kasus, tiga saudara laki-laki Ba’alawi Sayyid masing-masing menikah dengan non-Sayyid yang berasal dari Mongolia, Jepang dan Indonesia. Meskipun orang tua mereka merasa sedih atau malu, putra mereka tampaknya bahagia dalam perkawinannya.

Situs web perjodohan perkawinan

Beberapa situs web perjodohan perkawinan bahkan memiliki kategori bagi orang-orang untuk mencari pria dan wanita Sayyid (Syed) seperti yang ini di India.

Ada profil orang yang tertulis bahwa mereka hanya mau untuk menikahi Sayyid lain. Dalam beberapa contoh, orang tua dapat membuat profil untuk putra atau putri mereka yang menyatakan bahwa mereka adalah orang Sayyid dan secara ketat mencari pasangan Sayyid saja dengan kata-kata seperti “Non-Sayyid tidak usah menghubungi kita dan membuang waktu kita.”

Tidak mengherankan, setelah beberapa generasi pernikahan antar ras, Sayyid yang mengidentifikasi dirinya di situs web ini terlihat seperti orang India pribumi, bukan Arab atau campuran Arab dan India.

Screenshot profil Sayyid di situs web perkawinan India

Di situs perjodohan perkawinan India lain, orang dapat memilih salah satu dari banyak, banyak “kasta”, salah satu diantaranya adalah “Muslim – Syed”.

Yang menarik (dan menyedihkan) adalah banyaknya kelompok di bawah kategori Muslim. Di situs web ini, seseorang dapat mencari dari salah satu kelompok Muslim berikut. Rupanya beberapa orang – mungkin banyak – merasa bahwa pembagian kategori “Muslim” ini penting tanpa menyadari bahwa pembagian ini hanya akan semakin memecah belah umat Islam daripada mempersatukan mereka. Selain itu, membatasi pilihan seseorang ketika mencari pasangan itu sangat membatasi potensi seseorang untuk mendapat pernikahan yang bahagia.

  • Muslim
  • Muslim – Ansari
  • Muslim – Arain
  • Muslim – Awan
  • Muslim – Bohra
  • Muslim – Dekkani
  • Muslim – Dudekula
  • Muslim – Hanafi
  • Muslim – Jat
  • Muslim – Khoja
  • Muslim – Lebbai
  • Muslim – Malik
  • Muslim – Mapila
  • Muslim – Maraicar
  • Muslim – Memon
  • Muslim – Mughal
  • Muslim – Pathan
  • Muslim – Qureshi
  • Muslim – Rajput
  • Muslim – Rowther
  • Muslim – Shafi
  • Muslim – Sheikh
  • Muslim – Siddiqui
  • Muslim – Syed
  • Muslim – UnSpecified

Sebagai seorang Muslim Amerika, saya tidak tahu ada kelompok-kelompok Muslim ini dan hanya minggu lalu saya dapat tahu tentang kelompok “Syed”. Dengan kata lain, untuk orang luar, tidak ada kelompok yang penting kecuali yang semua orang tahu, yaitu “Muslim”.

Bagaimana dengan Keturunan Nabi Lain?

Semua nabi dan rasul Islam derajatnya sama

Semua Muslim percaya bahwa ada banyak nabi Islam selain Muhammad. Beberapa nabi lebih terkenal dari yang lain, misalnya Adam, Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, dan Yesus. Sayangnya, Muslim, baik Sayyid maupun non-Sayyid, secara keliru percaya bahwa Muhammad lebih tinggi derajatnya dari semua nabi lainnya. Sebenarnya, tidak ada perbedaan yang boleh dibuat antara nabi dan rasul Tuhan. Ini terbukti dalam ayat-ayat berikut.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
Katakanlah: Kami percaya pada Allah dan apa yang telah diwahyukan kepada kita, dan apa yang diwahyukan kepada Ibrahim dan Ismail dan Ishak dan Yakub dan suku-suku, dan apa yang diberikan kepada Musa dan Yesus, dan apa yang diberikan kepada para nabi dari Tuhan mereka, kami tidak membuat perbedaan apapun di antara mereka (nabi), dan kami adalah Muslim kepada-Nya. (2:136)
ءَامَنَ ٱلرَّسُولُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِۦ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَمَلَـٰٓئِكَتِهِۦ وَكُتُبِهِۦ وَرُسُلِهِۦ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّن رُّسُلِهِۦ ۚ وَقَالُوا۟ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ ٱلْمَصِيرُ
Rasul (Muhammad) telah percaya pada apa yang diturunkan kepadanya dari Tuhannya, dan [begitu juga] orang mukmin (orang yang percaya / beriman). Mereka semua percaya pada Tuhan dan malaikat-Nya dan buku-buku-Nya dan para rasul-Nya, [dan berkata], “Kami tidak membedakan antara rasul-rasul-Nya.” Dan mereka berkata, “Kami mendengar dan kami taat. [Kami mencari] pengampunan-Mu, Tuhan kami, dan bagi-Mu adalah tujuan [akhir].” (2:285)
قُلْ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَىٰٓ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـٰعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـٰقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَٱلْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَآ أُوتِىَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَٱلنَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُۥ مُسْلِمُونَ
Katakanlah, “Kami telah percaya pada Tuhan dan apa yang telah diturunkan kepada kami dan apa yang diturunkan kepada Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishak, Yakub, dan Keturunan [al-Asbat], dan dalam apa yang diberikan kepada Musa dan Yesus dan kepada para nabi dari Tuhan mereka. Kami tidak membuat perbedaan di antara mereka (nabi-nabi), dan kami adalah Muslim kepada-Nya. ” (3:84)

Ayat 4:152 menunjukkan bahwa Tuhan akan memberi hadiah kepada orang-orang mukmin yang tidak membeda-bedakan antara rasul siapapun. Ini berarti bahwa orang beriman, termasuk Sayyid, yang menganggap Nabi Muhammad lebih tinggi dari nabi dan rasul lainnya tidak akan diberi hadiah dari Tuhan.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا۟ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّنْهُمْ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًۭا رَّحِيمًۭا
Dan mereka yang percaya pada Tuhan dan rasul-Nya dan tidak membeda-bedakan antara mereka (rasul-rasul) – bagi mereka Dia akan memberikan hadiah. Dan selalu Tuhan adalah Pengampun dan Penyayang. (4:152)

Sekarang telah terbukti bahwa

  • semua nabi dan rasul adalah sama (derajatnya sama)
  • Muslim tidak diperbolehkan untuk melihat nabi dan rasul memiliki derajat lain lain
  • Muhammad tidak lebih tinggi derajatnya dari nabi dan rasul lainnya

Mari kita lihat apa yang Alquran katakan tentang beberapa keturunan dari nabi lainnya.

Sebagian dari keturunan nabi Ibrahim adalah orang yang salah

Dalam ayat 2:124, kita melihat bukti bahwa tidak semua keturunan nabi Ibrahim benar. Tuhan mengakui bahwa sebagiannya salah meskipun mereka keturunan nabi Ibrahim.

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ
Dan [sebutkan, ya Muhammad], ketika Ibrahim diuji oleh Tuhan dengan perintah dan dia memenuhi perintah itu. [Tuhan] berkata, “Sungguh, Aku akan menjadikanmu seorang pemimpin bagi rakyat.” [Ibrahim] berkata, “Dan keturunan saya?” [Tuhan] berkata, “Perjanjian saya tidak mencakup orang-orang yang melakukan kesalahan.” (2:124)

Dalam ayat 37:112-113 kita melihat bahwa nabi Ibrahim diberkahi dengan putra bernama Ishak tetapi sebagian dari keturunan mereka adalah orang berdosa yang tidak benar.

وَبَشَّرْنَـٰهُ بِإِسْحَـٰقَ نَبِيًّۭا مِّنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ وَبَـٰرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَىٰٓ إِسْحَـٰقَ ۚ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا مُحْسِنٌۭ وَظَالِمٌۭ لِّنَفْسِهِۦ مُبِينٌۭ
Dan Kami beri dia [Ibrahim] kabar baik (merupakan anak yang namanya) Ishak, seorang nabi dari orang-orang yang benar. Dan Kami memberkahi dia dan Ishak. Tapi di antara keturunan mereka ada orang-orang pelaku kebenaran dan orang-orang yang jelas merusak dirinya sendiri [yaitu, orang berdosa]. (37:112-113)

Dalam ayat 11:1-18, kita melihat bukti bahwa semua anak Nabi Yakub tidak benar kecuali satu. Mereka mencoba membunuh saudara mereka, Yusuf, dengan melemparkannya ke dalam sumur. Yusuf kemudian menjadi seorang nabi.

Dalam ayat 11:46 kita melihat bukti bahwa keturunan langsung nabi Nuh (salah satu putranya) tidak benar.

قَالَ يَـٰنُوحُ إِنَّهُۥ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ عَمَلٌ غَيْرُ صَـٰلِحٍۢ ۖ فَلَا تَسْـَٔلْنِ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِۦ عِلْمٌ ۖ إِنِّىٓ أَعِظُكَ أَن تَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلْجَـٰهِلِينَ
Dia [Allah] berkata, “Wahai Nuh, memang dia (anak Anda) bukan dari keluarga Anda, (karena) memang ia adalah [orang yang] kelakuannya tidak benar / saleh, maka jangan berdoa kepada-Ku (untuknya) apa yang kamu tidak ketahui. Sesungguhnya, Aku menasihati kamu, jangan sampai kamu termasuk orang yang tidak peduli sama kenyataan.” (11:46)

Perhatikan bahwa dalam ayat di atas, Tuhan memberi tahu Nuh bahwa

  1. Salah satu putranya Nuh tidak benar / saleh
  2. Nuh tidak boleh menganggap putranya yang tidak benar itu sebagai anggota keluarganya
  3. Nuh seharusnya tidak meminta (berdoa kepada) Tuhan untuk membantu (mengampuni) putranya

Dalam ayat 57:26 kita melihat bukti jelas bahwa banyak (bukan “beberapa”, tapi “banyak”) dari keturunan nabi Nuh dan Ibrahim adalah pelaku kesalahan (“bersifat keras untuk tidak taat”). Kata “banyak” yang digunakan dalam ayat ini adalah “katheer” / كَثِيرٌۭ dalam bahasa Arab yang jelas berarti “banyak”.

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًۭا وَإِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا ٱلنُّبُوَّةَ وَٱلْكِتَـٰبَ ۖ فَمِنْهُم مُّهْتَدٍۢ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌۭ مِّنْهُمْ فَـٰسِقُونَ
Dan Kami telah mengutus Nuh dan Ibrahim dan menempatkan di keturunan mereka kenabian dan kitab suci; dan di antara mereka adalah dia yang dapat petunjuk (hidayah), tetapi banyak dari mereka yang tidak taat. (57:26)

Ada kemungkinan bahwa ayat ini bicara tentang orang-orang yang tinggal di masyarakatnya keturunan Nuh dan Ibrahim tetapi, menurut kata-kata dalam ayat-ayat di atas, kemungkinan besar ayat ini bermaksud bahwa yang banyak melakukan kesalahan adalah keturunan nabi Nuh dan Ibrahim.

Bagaimana dengan Keturunan Nabi Musa dan Yesus?

Menurut Alquran, Musa dan Yesus adalah nabi dalam Islam. Mereka adalah dua nabi yang sering disebutkan dalam Alquran. Alquran menyebut pengikut mereka Ahli Kitab (Arab: Ahl Al-Kitaab) karena mereka adalah pengikut kitab suci, Taurat Yahudi. Orang Yahudi dan Kristen menghormati Musa dan Yesus sama seperti pengikut Alquran menghormati Muhammad. Tetapi, Yahudi dan Kristen memiliki sikap yang berbeda terhadap keturunan nabi-nabi tersebut.

Keturunan Nabi Yesus

Dalam kasus Yesus, tidak ada masalah karena dia tidak memiliki keturunan.

Keturunan Nabi Musa

Dalam kasus Musa, dia memiliki dua putra, Gersom dan Eliezer. Tapi, ketika tiba waktunya untuk memilih pengganti Musa, orang bijak Yahudi berkata bahwa Musa meminta salah satu putranya diangkat. Tapi, Tuhan menjawab dengan, “Anak-anakmu duduk dan tidak menyibukkan diri dengan Taurat. Yosua, yang melayani Anda, cocok untuk melayani Israel. ” Jadi, Yosua, bukan putra Musa, menjadi pemimpin suku-suku Israel setelah kematian Musa (Deuteronomy 31:1–8; 34:9).

Musa memiliki seorang kakak laki-laki, Harun, yang memiliki empat putra. Meskipun putra-putra Musa tidak mengikuti tradisi Musa, putra-putra Harun memang membawa tradisi luhur ayah mereka. Tuhan menganggap keponakan Musa (anak-anak Harun) sebagai anak-anak Musa, karena Musa-lah yang mengajari mereka Taurat. Ini tercermin dalam ayat Numbers 3:1 yang dimulai dengan “Ini adalah keturunan Musa dan Harun…” tetapi hanya mencantumkan keempat putra Harun. Tuhan meyakinkan Musa bahwa bahkan Yosua pun perlu berunding dengan putra Harun, Imam Besar, untuk mengetahui kehendak Tuhan.

Meskipun Musa memiliki dua putra, mereka tidak istimewa dan orang Yahudi tidak menganggap keturunan Musa lebih istimewa dari siapa pun. Mungkin orang Muslim bisa mendapat pelajaran dari sikap benar ini dari orang-orang Yahudi.

Bagaimana dengan Istri Para Nabi?

Banyak Muslim percaya bahwa istri-istri Nabi Muhammad adalah wanita-wanita yang superior dan saleh. Karena telah dibuktikan di atas bahwa semua nabi dan rasul adalah sederajat, maka orang mungkin juga berpikir bahwa istri dari nabi dan rasul lainnya juga lebih tinggi dan saleh. Mari kita lihat apa yang Quran katakan tentang ini.

Dalam ayat 66:10 kita melihat bukti bahwa meskipun nabi Nuh dan Lut adalah hamba Tuhan yang benar / saleh, istri mereka adalah orang berdosa dan dikirim ke Neraka. Ayat ini juga membuktikan bahwa nabi yang saleh tidak memiliki kuasa untuk menyelamatkan istri mereka yang berdosa dari Neraka.

ضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلًۭا لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ٱمْرَأَتَ نُوحٍۢ وَٱمْرَأَتَ لُوطٍۢ ۖ كَانَتَا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَـٰلِحَيْنِ فَخَانَتَاهُمَا فَلَمْ يُغْنِيَا عَنْهُمَا مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًۭٔا وَقِيلَ ٱدْخُلَا ٱلنَّارَ مَعَ ٱلدَّٰخِلِينَ
Allah memberi contoh orang-orang kafir: istri Nuh dan istri Lut. Mereka berada di bawah dua hamba Kami yang benar / saleh tetapi mengkhianati mereka, mereka [yaitu, para nabi itu] sama sekali tidak memanfaatkan (dapat menyelamatkan) (istri-istri) mereka dari Tuhan, dan dikatakan (kepada istri-istri mereka), “Masuki Api bersama mereka yang masuk.” (66:10)

Dalam ayat 33:30 kita membaca bahwa jika ada istri nabi Muhammad yang melakukan dosa, maka hukuman mereka akan menjadi dua kali lipat dari orang lain.

يَـٰنِسَآءَ ٱلنَّبِىِّ مَن يَأْتِ مِنكُنَّ بِفَـٰحِشَةٍۢ مُّبَيِّنَةٍۢ يُضَـٰعَفْ لَهَا ٱلْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرًۭا
Ya istri-istri Nabi, siapa pun dari Anda yang melakukan suatu perbuatan amoral – untuk dia hukumannya akan menjadi dua kali lipat, dan (hukuman) itu, buat Allah, mudah dilakukan. (33:30)

Menurut ayat di atas, menjadi jelas bahwa bersaudara dengan nabi Muhammad tidak mengecualikan mereka untuk melakukan kebenaran dan tidak menjamin mereka masuk surga.

Syafaat oleh Nabi Muhammad

Beberapa Sayyid percaya bahwa keturunan mereka kepada Nabi Muhammad akan membantu mereka mendapatkan akses ke surga dengan cara Nabi Muhammad menjadi perantara (syafaat) atas nama mereka di akhirat. Keyakinan ini sangat berbahaya karena memberi rasa aman yang palsu. Menurut ayat 2:123, tidak ada seorang pun, termasuk nabi Muhammad, yang memiliki kemampuan untuk menjadi perantara atas nama siapa pun pada hari itu.

وَٱتَّقُوا۟ يَوْمًۭا لَّا تَجْزِى نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍۢ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌۭ وَلَا تَنفَعُهَا شَفَـٰعَةٌۭ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ
Dan takutlah pada suatu Hari (Hari Keadilan / Pembalasan) bila tidak ada jiwa dapat membantu jiwa lain sama sekali, dan tidak ada kompensasi yang akan diterima darinya, juga tidak akan ada perantaraan yang menguntungkannya, juga mereka tidak akan dibantu. (2:123)

Ayat di atas membuktikan bahwa dalam urusan agama, setiap orang bertanggung jawab atas dirinya sendiri, dan tidak ada leluhur, tidak peduli seberapa terkenal atau mulia mereka, baik mereka meninggal kemarin atau 1400 tahun yang lalu, dapat bermanfaat bagi siapa pun, termasuk keturunannya.

Membandingkan Sayyid dengan Kelompok Lain

Jelas, Sayyid bukanlah satu-satunya orang yang berpikir bahwa mereka lebih unggul dari orang lain. Berikut adalah beberapa contoh kelompok orang lain yang juga memiliki perasaan unggul karena keturunannya.

Hindu

Sistem kasta Hindu membagi umat Hindu menjadi empat kategori utama – Brahmana, Ksatria, Waisya dan Sudra. Banyak yang percaya bahwa kelompok tersebut berasal dari Brahma, Dewa Pencipta Hindu. Di luar sistem kasta Hindu ini adalah orang-orang achhoots – Dalit atau Untouchables (orang yang tak tersentuh). Dalam sistem ini, semakin tinggi kasta Anda, semakin tinggi pula derajat Anda.

Hierarki kasta Hindu

Perhatikan bahwa, seperti untuk orang Sayyid, sistem kepercayaan Hindu ini didasarkan atas kelahiran – tidak ada yang dapat berpindah dari satu kelompok ke kelompok lain, baik naik derajat maupun turun. Dari sudut pandang seorang Hindu dari kasta tinggi, seorang Sayyid Muslim dapat dianggap lebih rendah dari mereka. Salah satu konsekuensi dari sistem kasta Hindu yang sangat tidak adil ini adalah konversi banyak Dalit ke Islam dengan harapan bisa lepas dari diskriminasi. Sayangnya, menurut artikel BBC Mengapa banyak Muslim India dipandang tak tersentuh?, bahkan Muslim dari kasta tinggi akan mendiskriminasi orang Dalit yang telah masuk Islam.

Orang-orang Dalit dianggap tidak murni oleh kasta Hindu dan banyak dari mereka bekerja di bidang sanitasi.

Seorang pekerja sanitasi Dalit

Meskipun konstitusi India melarang diskriminasi atas dasar kasta, diskriminasi berdasarkan kasta masih banyak terjadi.

Keunggulan orang putih (White Supremacy)

Kelompok “Keunggulan Orang Putih” percaya bahwa orang kulit putih merupakan ras yang unggul dan oleh karena itu harus mendominasi masyarakat, biasanya dengan mengesampingkan atau merugikan kelompok ras dan etnis lain, khususnya orang kulit hitam yang berasal dari Afrika atau Yahudi. Beberapa anggota kelompok ini berpendapat bahwa darah mereka “murni” atau bahwa mereka memiliki keturunan “murni” dari orang kulit putih Eropa. Tidak jarang seorang anggota kelompok ini berpikir bahwa mereka berketurunan orang Eropa murni tetapi setelah mereka mengambil tes genetik, ternyata mereka memiliki keturunan campuran dengan orang bukan Eropa.

Oops! That’s embarrassing.

Misalnya, banyak orang kulit putih mungkin terlihat seperti orang kaukasia tetapi sebenarnya memiliki keturunan campuran pribumi Amerika atau Meksiko. Kenyataan yang pasti mengejutkan ini membuat beberapa orang menolak begitu saja hasil tes genetik supaya mereka dapat melanjutkan perasaan superior mereka.

Walaupun hukum di Amerika Serikat melarang diskriminasi karena ras, warna kulit, agama, asal kebangsaan, jenis kelamin, umur, dan lain lain, masih banyak diskriminasi ditemukan di masyarakat.

Contoh-contoh lain

Jika dipikir-pikir, rasisme dan orang-orang yang memiliki sikap superioritas ada di semua lapisan masyarakat. Beberapa contoh adalah:

  • Orang yang tinggal di kota mungkin berpikir mereka lebih unggul daripada orang yang tinggal di daerah pedesaan
  • Orang kaya mungkin berpikir mereka lebih unggul dari orang miskin
  • Orang India atau Afrika berkulit putih mungkin berpikir mereka lebih unggul dari orang India atau Afrika berkulit gelap (produk pemutih kulit adalah bisnis besar di India dan Afrika)
  • Orang berpendidikan mungkin merasa lebih unggul dari orang yang tidak berpendidikan
  • Orang yang memiliki rumah mungkin merasa lebih unggul daripada orang yang menyewa rumah
  • Orang yang memiliki mobil mungkin merasa lebih unggul daripada orang yang harus naik angkutan umum
  • Seorang Amerika, yang lahir dan tinggal di negara terkaya dan terkuat di dunia, mungkin merasa lebih unggul dari semua orang yang bukan dari Amerika.

Kebanyakan Sayyid akan percaya bahwa sistem kasta Hindu, supremasi orang kulit putih, dan contoh-contoh lain di atas keterlaluan dan sama sekali tidak dapat diterima. Ironisnya, cara berpikir banyak orang Sayyid tidak berbeda dengan kelompok lain yang mengklaim keunggulan.

Oops! That’s embarrassing.

Salawaat

Dalam Quran, Surah al-Ahzab (33), Ayat 56 kita membaca bahwa Tuhan dan Malaikat-Nya mengirim salawaat (berkah) kepada Muhammad dan Tuhan memerintahkan orang-orang beriman untuk mengirim salawaat ke Muhammad juga.

إِنَّ ٱل‍لَّٰهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَىٰ ٱلنَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا۟ صَلُّوا۟ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا۟ تَسْلِيمًا
“Allah dan Malaikat-Nya memberi salawaat pada Nabi (Muhammad). Hai orang yang beriman! (Ucapkan) salawaat Anda pada dia, dan beri hormat kepadanya.”

Kata Salawaat adalah bentuk jamak dari kata salat yang berarti doa, berkah atau penghargaan. Beberapa Sayyid berpikir bahwa karena Tuhan dan Malaikat-Nya mengirimkan salawaat kepada nabi Muhammad, maka Muhammad harus lebih unggul dari semua nabi lainnya dan lebih jauh lagi, keturunan Muhammad ikut lebih unggul dari orang-orang lain. Mereka dapat dengan mudah dibuktikan salah dengan membaca beberapa ayat sebelum ayat di atas. Dalam Al-Qur’an Surah al-Ahzab (33), Ayat 41-43 kita menemukan bahwa Tuhan dan Malaikat-Nya mengirimkan salawaat kepada SEMUA orang yang beriman.

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ذِكْرًۭا كَثِيرًۭا وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةًۭ وَأَصِيلًا هُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُصَلِّى عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَـٰٓئِكَتُهُۥ لِيُخْرِجَكُم مِّنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ ۚ وَكَانَ بِٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًۭا
Hai orang-orang yang beriman, ingatlah Allah dengan banyak ingatan (zikir). Dan muliakan Dia pagi dan sore. Dialah yang memberi salawaat kepada Anda (orang-orang yang beriman), dan para malaikat-Nya [memberi salawaat juga] sehingga Dia dapat membawa Anda keluar dari kegelapan menuju keterangan. Dan selalu Dia, bagi orang yang beriman, Penyayang.

Ketika orang Muslim sembahyang, mereka membaca salawaat menjelang akhir shalat. Biasanya ucapannya sebagai berikut:

ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ ٱللَّٰهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
Allah, kirimlah salawaat pada Muhammad dan keluarga Muhammad, sebagaimana Anda telah mengirimkan salawaat untuk Ibrahim dan keluarga Ibrahim. Sungguh, Engkau Terpuji dan Mulia. Allah, berkatilah Muhammad dan keluarga Muhammad, karena Anda telah memberkati Ibrahim dan keluarga Ibrahim. Sungguh, Engkau Terpuji dan Mulia.

Di sini, kita melihat bahwa salawaat dilakukan bukan hanya untuk Muhammad tetapi untuk keluarganya Muhammad juga. Tapi, tidak ada instruksi dalam Al Qur’an bagi orang-orang beriman untuk mengirim salawaat kepada keluarga Muhammad. Seharusnya tidak mengherankan bahwa Islam, seperti banyak agama lain, telah berubah banyak karena politik, tradisi lokal, perang, dll. Itu salah satu sebabnya Islam menjadi bercabang dengan banyak aliran. Oleh karena itu, orang-orang yang berpengaruh, misalnya beberapa Sayyid dahulu kala, mungkin telah memodifikasi ucapan salawaat untuk memasukkan keluarga Muhammad untuk keuntungan pribadi mereka sendiri.

Membagi Umat Muslim

Jika Sayyid percaya bahwa mereka lebih unggul dari orang lain, maka mereka membagi umat Muslim. Menurut ayat 6:159, pikiran ini bukan hanya tidak dapat diterima, tetapi Tuhan bahkan mengatakan kepada Muhammad bahwa Muhammad tidak ada hubungannya dengan mereka. 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ
Sesungguhnya, orang-orang yang telah membagi agama mereka dan menjadi sekte – Anda, [Ya Muhammad], tidak [terkait] dengan mereka dalam apapun. Urusan mereka untuk Tuhan; kemudian Dia akan memberi tahu mereka tentang (kesalahan) apa yang mereka lakukan. (6:159)

Ironisnya, orang-orang Sayyid menggunakan hubungannya dengan Muhammad untuk membenarkan rasa superioritas mereka yang membagi umat Islam sedangkan Tuhan mengatakan bahwa Muhammad tidak ada hubungannya dengan orang-orang Sayyid justru karena sebab itu. 

Oops! That’s embarrassing.

Setan (Bapak Kesombongan) dan Sayyid

Ironisnya, para Sayyid Muslim yang percaya bahwa mereka lebih unggul dari orang lain ternyata berperilaku seperti Setan sendiri. Menurut Alquran, Setan (jin) merasa lebih unggul dari Adam (manusia) karena Setan dibuat dari api tanpa asap sedangkan Adam terbuat dari tanah liat.

Api tanpa asap dan tanah liat

Jelas, perbedaan biologis Setan dengan Adam jauh lebih jelas daripada perbedaan genetik yang tidak terlihat antara Sayyid dan non-Sayyid. Kita semua (orang-orang Yahudi, Kristen dan Muslim) tahu bagaimana ceritanya berakhir. Kesombongan dan kompleks superioritas setan akan membawanya ke Neraka untuk selamanya.

Keturunan Adam – Nabi Pertama Islam

Kebanyakan orang lebih menghormati pendiri atau pemula sesuatu, misalnya pendiri atau pemula agama, negara, revolusi, suatu gerakan, perusahaan yang sangat sukses, dll, daripada pemimpin berikutnya. Inilah salah satu sebab mengapa kebanyakan Muslim sangat menghormati Nabi Muhammad – mereka berpikir bahwa Muhammad adalah Muslim pertama dan pendiri Islam. Yang memalukan bagi mereka, dapat dengan mudah dibuktikan dengan Al-Qur’an bahwa Muhammad bukanlah Muslim dan nabi Islam pertama dan bahwa dia adalah nabi terakhir dari rantai panjang nabi. Dalam ayat 16:123, Tuhan secara khusus menyuruh Muhammad untuk mengikuti agamanya Nabi Ibrahim.

ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
Kemudian Kami [Allah] mewahyukan kepada Anda, [ya Muhammad], untuk mengikuti agama (bahasa Arab: millat) Ibrahim, menuju kebenaran; dan dia (Ibrahim) bukan seperti mereka yang syirik. (16:123)

Daripada berfokus pada Muhammad, nabi terakhir Islam, bagaimana jika umat Islam berfokus pada Adam, nabi pertama Islam? Meskipun Quran tidak secara harfiah menyebutkan bahwa Adam adalah seorang nabi atau rasul Islam, kenabiannya jelas tersirat dalam ayat 3:33 di mana ia disebut sederajat dengan nabi Nuh, Ibrahim dan Imran.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱصْطَفَىٰٓ ءَادَمَ وَنُوحًۭا وَءَالَ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَءَالَ عِمْرَٰنَ عَلَى ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
Sesungguhnya, Tuhan memilih Adam dan Nuh dan keluarga Ibrahim dan keluarga Imran atas alam semesta – (3:33)

Nabi Adam bukan hanya pendiri dan nabi pertama Islam tetapi juga pendiri umat manusia (setiap orang adalah keturunan Adam). Tidak ada silsilah keluarga yang dibutuhkan untuk membuktikan keturunan seseorang dari Adam. Akibatnya, setiap orang setara dalam hal keturunan bangsawan dan tidak ada yang bisa mengklaim keunggulan berdasarkan garis keturunan yang, seperti dibuktikan di atas, adalah sifat Iblis! Mungkin keturunan Ba’Alawi lebih baik menyebut diri mereka keturunan Ba’Adam, yaitu Bani Adam (keturunan Adam), saja. 

Orang Paling Mulia

Jika kita benar-benar ingin memilih seseorang atau sekelompok orang yang dianggap mulia menurut Islam, maka kita dapat dengan mudah menemukan siapa mereka dari Alquran. Ayat 49:13 menjelaskan bahwa orang yang paling mulia adalah orang yang paling bertaqwa. Dan, jelas ketawqaan itu tidak didasarkan pada kelahiran tetapi tindakan seseorang.

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَـٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍۢ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَـٰكُمْ شُعُوبًۭا وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتْقَىٰكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌۭ
Hai manusia, sesungguhnya Kami telah menciptakan kamu dari laki-laki dan perempuan dan membuat kalian bangsa dan suku yang mungkin kalian kenal satu sama lain. Sesungguhnya, yang paling mulia dari Anda di mata Allah adalah yang paling bertaqwa dari Anda. Sesungguhnya, Allah Maha Mengetahui dan Sadar. (49:13)

Hadits

Beberapa Sayyid mungkin berpendapat bahwa ada hadits sahih yang mendukung argumen bahwa Nabi Muhammad dan keturunannya lebih unggul dari orang lain. Mereka dianjurkan membaca artikel saya yang membuktikan bahwa hadits bukanlah sumber yang sah dari hukum Islam dan bahwa menggunakan hadits sebagai hukum Islam merupakan bentuk dari kesyirikan dan menyebabkan orang menjadi kafir.

Versi pendek:

Bukti Hadits Tidak Valid Hukum Islam

Versi panjang (bahasa Inggris):

http://uncorruptedislam.com/analysis-validity-prophet-muhammad-hadith.html

Kesimpulan

Bukti-bukti Alquran dan argumen logis di atas memperjelas bahwa keturunan Nabi Muhammad tidak lebih unggul sama sekali dibandingkan dengan umat manusia lainnya. Kesimpulan ini sangat jelas di negara-negara Barat non-Islam tetapi sayangnya, banyak orang di negara-negara Islam terlalu cuek dan menolak kesimpulan ini, mungkin karena mereka memiliki sikap bahwa tradisi harus benar meskipun bertentangan dengan logika. Mungkin mereka sebaiknya mundur selangkah dan merenungkan ayat berikut.

إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِندَ اللَّهِ الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
Sesungguhnya, makhluk hidup yang paling buruk di mata Allah adalah orang tuli dan bisu yang tidak menggunakan otaknya untuk berpikir. (8:22)

Sumber-sumber: 

The Fallacy That Descendants of Prophet Muhammad Are Superior to Everyone Else

This article has been translated into other languages:

There is a certain group of people who believe that they are descendants of the prophet Muhammad. A popular term used to refer to these people is “Sayyid” (singular) or “Sadah” (plural). It is also commonly spelled “Syed”. The descendants of Muhammad through their mother but not father are referred to as “Mirza”. Although reliable statistics are unavailable, conservative estimates put the number of Sayyids in the tens of millions. Sayyids can be found all over the world including the following.

Iraq
The Sayyid families in Iraq are so numerous that there are books written especially to list the families and connect their trees.

Iran
Sayyids are found in vast numbers in Iran. The Chief of “National Organization for Civil Registration” of Iran declared that more than 6 million of Iranians are Sayyid.

Oman
In Oman, Sayyid is used by members of the Al Said ruling royal family. Members of the extended family or members by marriage carry the title Sayyid or Sayyida for a female. Such titles in Oman are hereditary through paternal lineage or in some exceptional circumstances, such as an honorary title given by royal decree.

Libya
The Sayyids in Libya are Sunni, including the former royal family, which is originally Zaidi-Moroccan (also known as the Senussi family).

Yemen
In Yemen the Sayyids are more generally known as sadah; they are also referred to as Hashemites. In terms of religious practice they are Shia, Sunni, and Sufi. Sayyid families in Yemen include the Rassids, the Qasimids, the Mutawakkilites, the Hamideddins, some Al-Zaidi of Ma’rib, Sana’a, and Sa’dah, the Ba ‘Alawi sada families in Hadhramaut, Al-Wazir of Sana’a, Al-Shammam of Sa’dah, the Sufyan of Juban, and the Al-Jaylani of Juban.

Yemeni Ba ’Alawi
The term Ba ‘Alawi (باعلوي) which, in Yemeni dialect, is short for Bani ‘Alawi, means “clan or descendants of ‘Alawi”.

The Ba ‘Alawi sada families trace their lineage to Sayyid al-Imam Ahmad al-Muhajir bin Isa ar-Rumi born in 873 (260H), who emigrated from Basra to Hadhramaut in 931 (320H) to avoid sectarian violence, including the invasion of the Qaramite forces into the Abbasid Caliphate. Imam al-Muhajir’s grandson Alawi was the first Sayyid to be born in Hadhramaut, and the only one of Imam al-Muhajir’s descendants to produce a continued line; the lineages of Imam al-Muhajir’s other grandsons, Basri and Jadid, were cut off after several generations. Accordingly, Imam Al-Muhajir’s descendants in Hadhramaut hold the name Bā ‘Alawi (“descendants of Alawi”). The Ba ‘Alawi Sadah have since been living in Hadhramaut in Southern Yemen, maintaining the Sunni Creed in the fiqh school of Shafii. In the beginning, a descendant of Imam Ahmad Muhajir who became a scholar in Islamic studies was called Imam, then Sheikh, but later called Habib (beloved).

South Asia
In 1901 the total number of Sayyids (Syeds) in British India was counted as 1,339,734. Recent estimates show that in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal there are more than 15 million Sayyids: 8 million in Pakistan, 7 million in India, over 1 million in Bangladesh, and around seventy thousand in Nepal.

Southeast Asia
Most of the Alawi Sayyids who moved to Southeast Asia were descendants of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, especially of Ba ‘Alawi sada, many of which were descendants of migrants from Hadhramaut. Even though they are alleged descendants of Husayn, it is uncommon for the female Sayyids to be called Sayyidah; they are more commonly called Sharifah. Most of them live in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Moro Province in Philippines, Pattani and Cambodia. Many of the royal families of this region such as the previous royal families of the Philippines (Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao, Confederation of Sultanates of Ranao), Singapore (Sultanate of Singapore), Malaysia (Sultanates of Johor and Perlis), Indonesia (Sultanates of Siak, Pontianak, Gowa, some Javanese Sultanates), and the existing royal family of Brunei (House of Bolkiah) are also Sayyids, especially of Ba’Alawi.

Some common surnames of these Sayyids are al-Saqqaf, Shihab (or Shahab), al-Aidaroos, al-Habsyi (or al-Habshi), al-Kaff, al-Aththos, al-Haddad, al-Jufri (or al-Jifri), al-Muhdhar, al-Shaikh Abubakar, al-Qadri, al-Munawwar.

Ottoman Empire
In the Ottoman Empire, Muhammad’s descendants formed a kind of nobility with the privilege of wearing green turbans.

Are Sayyids Really Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad?

Genetic studies of Sayyids of the Indian sub-continent

The authors of the study “Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from the Indian subcontinent” showed that the Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from India and Pakistan are no less diverse than those non-Syeds from the same regions, suggesting that Syed status, rather than being strictly patrilineal, may have been passed through other routes, and that there is no biological basis to the belief that self-identified Syeds in this part of the world share a recent common ancestry.

Imposters

In the Ottoman Empire, tax breaks for Sayyids encouraged many people to buy certificates of descent or forge genealogies; the phenomenon of teseyyüd – falsely claiming noble ancestry – spread across ethnic, class, and religious boundaries. In the 17th century, an Ottoman bureaucrat estimated that there were 300,000 impostors. In 18th-century Anatolia, nearly all upper-class urban people claimed descent from Muhammad.

Mixed ancestry

Though many Sayyids claim nobility and superiority due to their lineage to the prophet Muhammad, most Sayyids can only claim patrilineal descent. Sayyids often married non-Sayyid Arabs and even non-Arabs resulting in them having very little genetic traces of the Prophet Muhammad. Unsurprisingly, most Sayyids, such the Ba’Alawi of Southeast Asia, look mixed Asian and Arab or completely Asian. Following are some famous Ba’Alawi Sayyids according to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba_%27Alawi_sada who look Indonesian or mixed Arab and Indonesian.

Abdullah bin Alwi Alatas
Merchant
Drs. Kyai Hajji Habib Ali Alwi bin Thohir Al Husainy 
Indonesian politician
Habib Bahar bin Smith 
Indonesian preacher
Fadel Muhammad Alhaddar
Former minister of maritime affairs and fisheries of Indonesia
Husein Aidid
Indonesian songwriter
Mahdi Fahri Albaar
Indonesian footballer
Mahmud Badaruddin II
Sultan of Palembang Sultanate, National Hero of Indonesia
Raden Saleh
a famous painter in Dutch Indies
Radin Inten II
National Hero of Indonesia
Syarif Kasim II of Siak
12th Sultan of Siak Sri Indrapura Sultanate
Umay Shahab
Indonesian actor

Sayyid Superiority

Most Muslims consider Prophet Muhammad to be superior to all other prophets. This is evidenced by the fact that pretty much every mosque in tMost Muslims consider Prophet Muhammad to be superior to all other prophets. This is evidenced by the fact that pretty much every mosque in the world has two names placed side by side on their walls, namely “Muhammad” and “Allah” (Arabic for “God”). Very rarely will you see the names of the other prophets such as Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Interestingly, Muhammad’s name is more often than not the same size and at the same height as that of God suggesting that Muhammad is equal to God, which obviously contradicts Islam’s core fundamental belief, but that’s a different issue.

The Hagia Sofia Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey shows the name “Muhammad” on the left and “Allah” (God) on the right. This is a photo of me visiting Hagia Sophia in September 2020.

By believing in the superiority of Muhammad, some descendants of the prophet Muhammad and even other Muslims would regard Sayyids as noble people who are somewhat superior to everyone else. For example, in the Ottoman empire, tax breaks were given to Sayyids. In Indonesia, many native Indonesian students of Islam would bow down and kiss the hand of a Sayyid even if the Sayyid wasn’t a practicing Muslim.

Further evidence that Sayyids consider themselves a superior group comes from their choice in a marriage partner (or their parent’s choice of a marriage partner for their children). 

In India, traditional Sayyid families rarely marry outside their community and emphasise marrying into Najeeb Altarfain (of Sayyid descent from both the mother’s and father’s side) families. However, this insistence on endogamy has begun to decline among the more urbanized families, with an increase in exogamy with other groups such as the Shaikh and Mughals.

In Indonesia, I am personally familiar with the fact that many Ba’Alawi Sayyids insist on marrying other Ba’Alawi Sayyids, especially if the Sayyid is a female since ancestral lineage is patrilineal. Ironically, the prophet Muhammad himself had no sons, just a daughter, yet many Sayyids use patrilineal ancestry in their family trees linking them to the prophet.

Marriage

In order to continue their patrilineal ancestry to the prophet Muhammad and consequently their children’s sense of nobility and superiority, female Sayyids would have to marry other Sayyids. Unfortunately, however, marrying someone on the basis of family name as opposed to compatibility is likely to result in disappointment and divorce. 

Sayyid women marrying Sayyid men

In one example, a female Ba’alawi Sayyid I know married a Ba’alawi Sayyid man who turned out to be violent and who even threatened to kill her. Not exactly noble behavior!

In another example, a Ba’alawi Sayyid woman married a Ba’alawi Sayyid man who was her cousin. The man then married another woman who was a non-Ba’Alwi Arab so as to have two wives. The first wife rejected the second marriage and ran away. Eventually, the second wife divorced her husband. The first wife, who never worked, was dependant on her husband so she eventually came back to him. Now, they live together but sleep in separate rooms and don’t talk to each other.

In another example, a female Ba’alawi Sayyid I know married a Ba’alawi Sayyid without them having even seen each other in person before their wedding day. There was even support and pressure for this marriage from both families as if marriage between two Sayyids was a guarantee of success and happiness. Unsurprisingly, she divorced her husband after 10 years, is now 44 years old, doesn’t have any kids despite wishing to have kids, and is finding it difficult to remarry at her age. 

A non-Sayyid Arab woman marrying a Sayyid man

Some non-Sayyid women may feel proud to marry a Sayyid man so that their children can become Sayyids. Though Sayyids may consider themselves superior, they are really just ordinary people. Like everyone else, some Sayyids are good and some are bad. I personally know of a non-Sayyid woman who married two Ba’alawi Sayyids. She divorced the first husband after one week and divorced the second after having 6 children. She never remarried. Though she may feel proud that her children are Sayyids, she’s probably more disappointed that her marriages failed.

A Sayyid woman marrying a non-Arab, non-Sayyid man

Sometimes, a female Sayyid would marry a non-Arab non-Sayyid. This happened to the sister of a Ba’alawi Sayyid friend of mine. She wanted to marry a native Indonesian. As this was considered unacceptable, sadly only a few people attended the wedding from the Sayyid side. The majority of the wedding guests were from the non-Sayyid groom’s side.

Sayyid men marrying non-Arab, non-Sayyid women

There are also cases where Sayyid parents insist their sons marry Sayyids but their sons don’t want to. In one case, three Ba’alawi Sayyid brothers each married non-Sayyids who were Mongolian, Japanese and Indonesian. Though their parents were devastated and felt disgraced, their sons seem happily married.

Matrimonial websites

Some matrimonial matchmaking websites even have a category for people to search for men and women who are Sayyids or Syeds like this Indian one.

Some may mention outright that they are only interested in marrying another Sayyid. In some cases, a parent may create a profile for their son or daughter stating that they are Sayyids and are strictly seeking Sayyid matches with words like “Non-Sayyids should not contact us and waste our time.”

Unsurprisingly, after generations of inter-racial marriages, the self-identified Sayyids on this website look Indian instead of Arab.

Screenshot of Sayyid profiles on an Indian matrimonial website

On another Indian matrimonial website, Muslims can choose one of many, many “castes” one of which is “Muslim – Syed”. 

What’s interesting (and sad) is the sheer number of groups under the Muslim category. On this website, one can search from one of the following Muslim groups. Apparently some people – possibly many – feel that these subdivisions are necessary without realizing that it only further divides Muslims rather than unites them. Furthermore, it limits one’s choices when searching for a spouse which limits one’s potential for attaining a happy marriage.

  • Muslim
  • Muslim – Ansari
  • Muslim – Arain
  • Muslim – Awan
  • Muslim – Bohra
  • Muslim – Dekkani
  • Muslim – Dudekula
  • Muslim – Hanafi
  • Muslim – Jat
  • Muslim – Khoja
  • Muslim – Lebbai
  • Muslim – Malik
  • Muslim – Mapila
  • Muslim – Maraicar
  • Muslim – Memon
  • Muslim – Mughal
  • Muslim – Pathan
  • Muslim – Qureshi
  • Muslim – Rajput
  • Muslim – Rowther
  • Muslim – Shafi
  • Muslim – Sheikh
  • Muslim – Siddiqui
  • Muslim – Syed
  • Muslim – UnSpecified

As an American Muslim, I personally am not familiar with any of these Muslim groups and only last week learned about the “Syed” group. In other words, for an outsider, none of the groups matter except for the parent group, i.e. “Muslim”.

What About Descendants of Other Prophets?

All prophets and messengers of Islam are equal

All Muslims believe that there are many prophets in Islam besides Muhammad. Some prophets are more famous than others, e.g. Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Unfortunately, Muslims, both Sayyid and non-Sayyid, incorrectly believe that Muhammad is superior to all other prophets. Rather, no distinction should be made between any of the prophets and messengers of God. This is proven in the following verses.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
Say: We believe in God and that which had been revealed to us, and that which was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and that which was given to Moses and Jesus, and that which was given to the prophets from their Lord, we do not make any distinction between any of them (prophets), and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him. (Quran: 2:136)
ءَامَنَ ٱلرَّسُولُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِۦ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَمَلَـٰٓئِكَتِهِۦ وَكُتُبِهِۦ وَرُسُلِهِۦ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّن رُّسُلِهِۦ ۚ وَقَالُوا۟ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ ٱلْمَصِيرُ
The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and [so have] the believers. All of them have believed in God and His angels and His books and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.” (Quran: 2:285)
قُلْ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَىٰٓ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـٰعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـٰقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَٱلْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَآ أُوتِىَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَٱلنَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُۥ مُسْلِمُونَ
Say, “We have believed in God and in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Descendants [al-Asbat], and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them (prophets), and we are Muslims [submitting] to Him.” (Quran: 3:84)

Verse 4:152 indicates that God will reward believers who do not discriminate between any of the messengers. This implies that believers, including Sayyids, who regard the prophet Muhammad as superior to other prophets and messengers will not be rewarded.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا۟ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّنْهُمْ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًۭا رَّحِيمًۭا
But they who believe in God and His messengers and do not discriminate between any of them (messengers) – to those He is going to give their rewards. And ever is God Forgiving and Merciful. (Quran: 4:152)

Now that it has been proven that 

  • all prophets and messengers are equal
  • Muslims are not allowed to view prophets and messengers as unequal
  • Muhammad is not superior to the other prophets and messengers

let’s see what the Quran says about some of the descendants of other prophets.

Some of Abraham’s descendants were wrongdoers

In verse 2:124, we see proof that not all of Abraham’s descendants are righteous. God acknowledges that some are wrongdoers despite being descendants of prophet Abraham.

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ
And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham was tried by his Lord with commands and he fulfilled them. [God] said, “Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people.” [Abraham] said, “And of my descendants?” [God] said, “My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.” (Quran: 2:124)

In verses 37:112-113, we see that Abraham was given a son named Isaac but some of their descendants were unrighteous sinners.

وَبَشَّرْنَـٰهُ بِإِسْحَـٰقَ نَبِيًّۭا مِّنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ وَبَـٰرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَىٰٓ إِسْحَـٰقَ ۚ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا مُحْسِنٌۭ وَظَالِمٌۭ لِّنَفْسِهِۦ مُبِينٌۭ
And We gave him [Abraham] good tidings of Isaac, a prophet from among the righteous. And We blessed him and Isaac. But among their descendants is the doer of good and the clearly unjust to himself [i.e., sinner]. (Quran: 37:112-113)

In verses 11:1-18, we see proof that all but one of Prophet Jacob’s sons were unrighteous. They tried to kill their brother, Joseph, by throwing him down a well. Joseph would later become a prophet.

In verse 11:46 we see proof that prophet Noah’s immediate descendant (one of his sons) was unrighteous.

قَالَ يَـٰنُوحُ إِنَّهُۥ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ عَمَلٌ غَيْرُ صَـٰلِحٍۢ ۖ فَلَا تَسْـَٔلْنِ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِۦ عِلْمٌ ۖ إِنِّىٓ أَعِظُكَ أَن تَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلْجَـٰهِلِينَ
He [God] said, “O Noah, indeed he (your son) is not of your family; indeed, he is [one whose] work was other than righteous, so ask Me not for that about which you have no knowledge. Indeed, I advise you, lest you be among the ignorant.” (Quran: 11:46)

Notice that in the above verse, God tells Noah that not only is one of his sons unrighteous, but that 

  1. Noah should not consider his unrighteous son to be of his family. 
  2. Noah should not ask God to help his son

In verse 57:26 we see clear proof that many (not some, but “many”) of the descendants of prophets Noah and Abraham were wrongdoers (“defiantly disobedient”). The word for “many” used in the verse is “katheer” / كَثِيرٌۭ in Arabic which clearly means “many”.

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًۭا وَإِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا ٱلنُّبُوَّةَ وَٱلْكِتَـٰبَ ۖ فَمِنْهُم مُّهْتَدٍۢ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌۭ مِّنْهُمْ فَـٰسِقُونَ
And We have already sent Noah and Abraham and placed in their descendants prophethood and scripture; and among them is he who is guided, but many of them were defiantly disobedient. (Quran: 57:26)

It’s possible that this verse is referring to people who lived amongst the descendants of Noah and Abraham but, considering the wording in the verses above, it most likely means that the wrongdoers were their descendants.

What About Descendants of Prophets Moses and Jesus?

According to the Quran, Moses and Jesus are prophets of Islam. They are two of the most often mentioned prophets in the Quran. The Quran calls their followers People of the Book (Arabic: Ahl Al-Kitaab) because they are followers of the holy book, the Jewish Torah. Jews and Christians revere Moses and Jesus just as much as followers of the Quran revere Muhammad. However, Jews and Christians have a different attitude towards descendants of these prophets. 

Jesus’ descendants

In the case of Jesus, there is no issue because he had no descendants.

Moses’ descendants

In the case of Moses, he had two sons, Gershom and Eliezer. However, when it came time to choose a successor for Moses, Jewish Sages said that Moses requested that one of his sons be appointed. But, God responded with, “Your sons sat and did not occupy themselves with Torah. Joshua, who served you, is fitting to serve Israel.” So, Joshua became the leader of the Israelite tribes after the death of Moses and not any of Moses’ sons (Deuteronomy 31:1–8; 34:9).

Moses had an older brother, Aaron, who had four sons. Though Moses’ sons did not live up to Moses’ example, Aaron’s sons did carry the noble traditions of their father. God considered Moses’ nephews (Aaron’s sons) as Moses’ children, for Moses was the one who taught them the Torah. This is reflected in Numbers 3:1 which begins “These are the descendants of Moses and Aaron…” but only lists Aaron’s four sons. God reassured Moses that even Joshua would need to confer with Aaron’s son, the High Priest, to know God’s will.

Though Moses had two sons, they were nothing special and Jews don’t consider descendants of Moses to be any more special than anyone else. Maybe some Muslims can learn from this Jewish attitude.

What About the Wives of Prophets?

Many Muslims believe that the wives of prophet Muhammad were superior and righteous women. Since it was proven above that all prophets and messengers are equal, then one would expect the wives of other prophets and messengers to all be superior and righteous as well. Let’s see what the Quran says about that.

In verse 66:10 we see proof that even though prophets Noah and Lot were righteous servants of God, their wives were sinners and were sent to Hell. This verse also proves that righteous prophets had no power to save their sinful wives from Hell.

ضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلًۭا لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ٱمْرَأَتَ نُوحٍۢ وَٱمْرَأَتَ لُوطٍۢ ۖ كَانَتَا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَـٰلِحَيْنِ فَخَانَتَاهُمَا فَلَمْ يُغْنِيَا عَنْهُمَا مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًۭٔا وَقِيلَ ٱدْخُلَا ٱلنَّارَ مَعَ ٱلدَّٰخِلِينَ
God presents an example of those who disbelieved: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were under two of Our righteous servants but betrayed them, so they [i.e., those prophets] did not avail them from God at all, and it was said, “Enter the Fire with those who enter.” (Quran: 66:10)

In verse 33:30 we read that if any of prophet Muhammad’s wives committed a sin, then their punishment would be double that of anyone else.

يَـٰنِسَآءَ ٱلنَّبِىِّ مَن يَأْتِ مِنكُنَّ بِفَـٰحِشَةٍۢ مُّبَيِّنَةٍۢ يُضَـٰعَفْ لَهَا ٱلْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرًۭا
O wives of the Prophet, whoever of you should commit a clear immorality – for her the punishment would be doubled two fold, and ever is that, for God, easy. (Quran: 33:30)

According to the verse above, it becomes clear that being related to the prophet Muhammad does not guarantee exemption from righteousness nor admission to Paradise.

Intercession by Prophet Muhammad

Some Sayyids believe that their bloodline to Prophet Muhammad would help them gain access to Paradise by way of Prophet Muhammad interceding on their behalf on the Day of Judgment / Recompense. This belief is extremely dangerous as it offers a false sense of security. According to the verse 2:123, no one, including the prophet Muhammad, has the power to intercede on anyone’s behalf on the Day.

وَٱتَّقُوا۟ يَوْمًۭا لَّا تَجْزِى نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍۢ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌۭ وَلَا تَنفَعُهَا شَفَـٰعَةٌۭ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ
And fear a Day (Day of Judgment / Recompense) when no soul will suffice for another soul at all, and no compensation will be accepted from it, nor will any intercession benefit it, nor will they be aided. (Quran: 2:123)

The verse above proves that on matters of religion, everyone is responsible for themselves, and no ancestor, no matter how famous or noble they were, whether they died yesterday or 1400 years ago, can benefit anyone, let alone their descendants.

Comparing Sayyids to Other Groups

Obviously, Sayyids aren’t the only people who think they are superior to others. Following are some examples of other groups of people who have a superiority complex.

Hindus

The Hindu caste system divides Hindus into four main categories – Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Many believe that the groups originated from Brahma, the Hindu God of creation. Outside of this Hindu caste system were the achhoots – the Dalits or the untouchables. In this system, the higher your caste, the more superior you are.

Hindu caste hierarchy

Note that, as for Sayyids, this Hindu belief system is based on birth – no one can move from one group to another, whether up or down. From the viewpoint of a Hindu of upper caste, a Sayyid Muslim could be regarded as inferior to them. One consequence of this egregiously unfair Hindu caste system is the conversion of many Dalits to Islam hoping to escape discrimination. Unfortunately, according to the BBC article Why are many Indian Muslims seen as untouchable?, even Muslims of upper castes will discriminate against Dalits who have become Muslim.

Dalits are considered impure by caste Hindus and many of them work in sanitation.

A Dalit sanitation worker

Although India’s constitution banned discrimination on the basis of caste, discrimination by caste is still widely prevalent.

White supremacists

White supremacists believe that white people constitute a superior race and should therefore dominate society, typically to the exclusion or detriment of other racial and ethnic groups, in particular black or Jewish people. Some white supremacists argue that their blood is “pure” or that they are “pure” descendants of white Europeans. It is not uncommon for a white supremacist member to think they are pure European only to find out after taking a genealogy test that they have mixed ancestry.

Oops! That’s embarrassing.

For example, many white people may look caucasian but actually have mixed native American or Mexican ancestry. This shocking reality leads some to simply reject the test results so they may continue with their feelings of superiority.

Although US law prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age, etc, discrimination on these points still exist.

Other examples

If you think about it, racism and people who have a superiority complex exist in all walks of life. Some examples are:

  • A person who lives in the city may think they are superior to people who live in rural areas
  • A rich people may think they are superior to poor people
  • A fair skinned Indian or African may think they are superior to dark skinned Indians and Africans (Note: skin whitening is big business in Asia and Africa)
  • An educated person may feel they are superior to uneducated people
  • A person who owns a house may feel superior to people who rent a house
  • A person who owns a car may feel superior to someone who has to ride public transportation
  • An American, being from the richest and most powerful country in the world, may feel superior to all non-Americans.

Most Sayyids would consider the Hindu caste system, white supremacy, and the other examples above as outrageous and completely unacceptable. Ironically, many Sayyids are no different than these other groups who claim superiority.

Oops! That’s embarrassing.

Salawaat

In Quran, Surah al-Ahzab (33), Verse 56 we read that God and His Angels send salawaat  (blessings) to Muhammad and God instructed believers to send salawaat Muhammad as well. 

إِنَّ ٱل‍لَّٰهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَىٰ ٱلنَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا۟ صَلُّوا۟ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا۟ تَسْلِيمًا
“God and His Angels send blessings on the Prophet, O you who believe! Send your blessings on him, and salute him a thorough salutation” (Quran: 33:56)

The word salawaat is the plural form of the word salat which means prayer, blessings or salutation. Some Sayyids think that since God and His Angels send blessings on the prophet Muhammad, then Muhammad must be superior to all other prophets and by extension, Muhammad’s descendants are superior. They can easily be proven wrong by reading a few verses before the one above. In Quran Surah al-Ahzab (33), Verses 41-43 we find that God and His Angels send blessings on ALL believers.

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ذِكْرًۭا كَثِيرًۭا وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةًۭ وَأَصِيلًا هُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُصَلِّى عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَـٰٓئِكَتُهُۥ لِيُخْرِجَكُم مِّنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ ۚ وَكَانَ بِٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًۭا
O you who have believed, remember God with much remembrance. And exalt Him morning and afternoon. It is He who confers blessing upon you (believers), and His angels [do so as well] that He may bring you out from darkness into the light. And ever is He, to the believers, Merciful. (Quran: 33:41-43)

When Muslims pray, they recite salawaat near the end of the prayer. It usually reads as follows:

ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ ٱللَّٰهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
God, send prayers on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have sent prayers on Abrahim and the family of Abrahim. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious. God, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Abraham and the family of Abrahim. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious.

Here, we see that salawaat is done for Muhammad in addition to the family of Muhammad. However, there is no instruction in the Quran for believers to send salawaat to the family of Muhammad. It should come as no surprise that Islam, like many religions, have changed over time due to politics, local traditions, war, etc. It is therefore likely that influential people, e.g.  some Sayyids long ago, may have modified the salawaat to include the family of Muhammad for their own personal benefit.

Dividing the Muslim Community

If Sayyids believe they are superior to everyone else, then they are dividing the Muslim community which, according to verse 6:159, is not only unacceptable, but God even tells Muhammad that he has nothing to do with them.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ
Indeed, those who have divided their religion and become sects – you, [O Muhammad], are not [associated] with them in anything. Their affair is only [left] to God; then He will inform them about what they used to do. (6:159)

Ironically, Sayyids use their relationship to Muhammad to justify their sense of superiority which divides Muslims while God indicates that Muhammad has nothing to do with them for that very reason.

Oops! That’s embarrassing.

Satan (The Father of Arrogance) and Sayyids

Ironically, Muslim Sayyids who believe that they are somehow superior to everyone else are in fact behaving like Satan himself. According to the Quran, Satan (a jinn) felt superior to Adam (a human) because Satan was made from smokeless fire whereas Adam was made from clay.

Smokeless fire and clay

Clearly, Satan’s biological difference with Adam is much more obvious than the invisible genetic difference between Sayyids and non-Sayyids. We all (Christians, Jews and Muslims) know how the story ends. Satan’s arrogance and superiority complex will commit him to Hell for eternity.

Descendants of Adam – The First Prophet of Islam

Most people have more respect for founders or pioneers of something, whether it is a religion, a country, a successful company, etc, rather than subsequent leaders. This is one reason why most Muslims have a lot of respect for the prophet Muhammad – they think that he is the first Muslim and founder of Islam. Embarrassingly for them, it can easily be proven using the Quran that Muhammad was not the first Muslim and prophet of Islam and that he happens to be the last prophet from a long chain of prophets. In verse 16:123, God specifically told Muhammad to follow the religion of prophet Abraham. 

ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
Then We [God] revealed to you, [O Muhammad], to follow the form of religion (Arabic: millat) of Abraham, inclining toward truth; and he was not of those who associate with God. (16:123)

Instead of focusing on Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam, what if Muslims focused on Adam, the first prophet of Islam? Even though the Quran doesn’t literally mention that Adam was a prophet or messenger of Islam, his prophethood is clearly implied in verse 3:33 where he is compared to prophets Noah, Abraham and Imran.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱصْطَفَىٰٓ ءَادَمَ وَنُوحًۭا وَءَالَ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَءَالَ عِمْرَٰنَ عَلَى ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
Indeed, God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of Imran over the worlds – (3:33)

Prophet Adam was not only the founder and first prophet of Islam but also the founder of mankind (everyone is a descendant of Adam). No family tree is needed to prove one’s descent from Adam. Consequently, everyone is equal with respect to noble ancestry and no one can claim supremacy based on bloodline which, as proven above, is the way of the Devil!

The Most Noble People

If we really wanted to single out a person or a group of people who should be considered noble with respect to Islam, then we can easily find who they are from the Quran. Verse 49:13 makes it clear that the most noble people are the most righteous. And, it should go without saying that righteousness is not based on birth but one’s actions.

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَـٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍۢ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَـٰكُمْ شُعُوبًۭا وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتْقَىٰكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌۭ
O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Aware. (49:13)

Hadith

Some Sayyids may argue that there are hadith that support the argument that the Prophet Muhammad and his progeny are superior to everyone else. For them, they may read my article which proves that the hadith are not a valid source of Islamic law and that judging by the hadith on matters of religion constitutes shirk and renders one kafir. 

Short version:

Proof the Hadith is Not Valid Islamic Law

Long version:

http://uncorruptedislam.com/analysis-validity-prophet-muhammad-hadith.html

Conclusion

The Quranic proofs and logical arguments above make it clear that descendants of the prophet Muhammad are not superior in anyway, shape or form compared to the rest of mankind. This conclusion is pretty obvious in non-Islamic Western countries but unfortunately, many people in Islamic countries are too ignorant and in denial of this, possibly due to their attitude that tradition must be correct even if it defies logic. Perhaps they should take a step back and ponder over the following verse.

إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِندَ اللَّهِ الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
Indeed, the worst of living creatures in the sight of Allah are the deaf and dumb who do not use their brains to think. (8:22)

Sources: 

إثبات أن النساء المسلمات لسن بحاجة لتغطية شعرهم

العديد من المسلمين يعتقدون أنه يجب على النساء المسلمات تغطية شعرهم. فيما يلي تحليل متعمق يثبت أنه وفقاً للقرآن لا يجب على النساء تغطية شعرهم.

الحجاب

يشير العديد من المسلمين إلى غطاء رأس المرأة بـ “الحجاب”. لم تُذكَر كلمة “الحجاب” في القرآن كغطاء للرأس. فيما يلي جميع المراجع لكلمة “الحجاب” في القرآن ومعانيها.

  • للدلالة على الحجاب بين أصحاب الجنة (الجنة) وأصحاب النار (الجحيم) (7:46)
  • حجاب بين أولئك الذين لا يؤمنون بالآخرة (17:45)
  • الفصل/ العزلة/ الحجاب الذي طبقته ماري بينها وبين شعبها (19:17)
  • في إشارة إلى النبي سليمان (عليه السلام) وعلاقته فيما يتعلق بخيوله (38:32)
  • للدلالة على التحريم الذي سيتعرض له الظالمين من ربهم يوم القيامة (83:15)
  • للدلالة على انفصال زوجات الرسول (33:53)
  • ادعاء الكفار للدلالة على الحجاب بين ما يؤمنون به وبما يدعوهم النبي إليه (41.5)
  • الحجاب الذي يستخدمه الله للتحدث إلى البشر (42:51)

المراجع أعلاه أيضاً متوفرة على

http://corpus.quran.com/qurandictionary.jsp?q=Hjb#(7:46:2)

الآية 24:31

الآية التي يستخدمها معظم المسلمين للمطالبة بضرورة تغطية النساء لشعرهن هي الآية 24:31.

وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا ۖ وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِهِنَّ ۖ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَائِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَاءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَائِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَاءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي أَخَوَاتِهِنَّ أَوْ نِسَائِهِنَّ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُنَّ أَوِ التَّابِعِينَ غَيْرِ أُولِي الْإِرْبَةِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ أَوِ الطِّفْلِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَىٰ عَوْرَاتِ النِّسَاءِ ۖ وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ ۚ وَتُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

هيا نحلل هذه الآية عبر تقسيمها إلى 4 بنود

وقل للنساء المؤمنات

  1. عدم إظهار زينتهن
  2. استثناء ما هو واضح (إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا)
  3. وليضعن غطاء رؤوسهن (بِخُمُرِهِنَّ) على صدورهن (جُيُوبِهِنّ)
  4. عدم إظهار زينتهن إلا لأزواجهن أو آبائهن

السياق

من أجل فهم صحيح للآية، يجب علينا فهم سياقها. من الواضح أن سياق هذه الآية يتعلق بزينة أو جمال المرأة، حيث أن هذه الآية تخبر النساء بعدم إظهارها. الكلمة العربية لـ “زينتهن” هي ( زِينَتَهُنَّ) التي استخدمت مرتين في هذه الآية. بشكل عام، تمنع الآية النساء من إظهار زينتهن. السبب وراء ذلك يتعلق بالآية 33:59 التي تخبر النساء بارتداء ثياب خارجية لتجنب تعرضهن للمضايقات مثل ارتداء ثياب خارجية يساعد على اخفاء جمال المرأة.

فيما يلي تفسير للكلمات الرئيسية في هذه الآية.

زِينَتَهُنَّ

أصلُ كلمة زِينَتَهُنَّ من الحروف الجذرية ز-ي-ن. وفقاً لمعجم إدوارد لينز، تشير هذه الكلمة “زينتهن” بوضوح إلى التبرج، تجميل النفس، أو الزينة إلى حد يمكن أن يصبح سبباً للجذب.

إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا

تعني هذه العبارة “إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا” والتي تشير إلى الزينة / الجمال (باللغة العربية: زينة).

بِخُمُرِهِنَّ

تعني هذه الكلمة ” بغطائهن”. كلمة “خمار” (جمع خُمُر) تعني الغطاء كما هو مشار إليه في معجم إدوارد لينز.

أي شيء يغطي شيء هو غطاء. غطاء الرأس هو نوع من أنواع الخمار حيث أنه يغطي الرأس وهذا ينطبق على كلاً من الرجال والنساء.على سبيل المثال، في الأجواء الحارة مثل الشرق الأوسط، ترى الرجال يغطون رؤوسهم بسبب الحر. في الولايات المتحدة، يلبس الرجال عادة قبعة إذا كان الطقس حاراً في الخارج. في سياق الآية 24:31 أعلاه، تعني هذه الكلمة غطاء الرأس.

جُيُوبِهِنَّ

أتت كلمة جُيُوبِهِنَّ من الحروف الجذرية جيب. وفقاً لمعجم إدوارد لينز، في سياق الآية القرآنية 24:31 أعلاه تعني صدر المرأة.

شرح الآية

الآن بعد فهمنا للكلمات الرئيسية، يمكننا شرح ماذا تقول الآية أعلاه.

  1. البند 1 يخبر النساء بعدم إظهار زينتهن / جمالهن.
  2. البند 2 يستثني الجمال / الزينة التي تعتبر كمظهر طبيعي، على سبيل المثال وجه جميل، عيون، إلخ.
  3. البند 3 يخبر النساء بتغطية صدورهن. يأتي هذا البند بعد البند 2 لأنه يوضح أن الصدر، على الرغم من أنه يعتبر جمال طبيعي، ليس جزءاً من الاستثناء في العبارة 2 أعلاه. على الرغم من أن الآية تخبر النساء ليضعن غطاء رؤوسهن على صدورهن، لا يعني هذا أنه على النساء تغطية رؤوسهن أو شعرهن. عندما نزلت هذه الآية، من المحتمل أن كلاً من الرجال والنساء كانوا يغطون شعرهم لأن شبه الجزيرة العربية كانت ولا تزال منطقة حارة جداً.
  4. البند 4 يخبر النساء بعدم إظهار زينتهن / جمالهن باستثناء الأقارب المعينين.

هل تطلب هذه الآية من النساء بتغطية شعرهن؟

لا. لا تشير هذه الآية في أي موضع إلى كلمة ” شعر”. إذا كان الله يريد حقاً من النساء تغطية شعرهن، كان من الممكن أن يقول ببساطة “واجعلهنّ يضعن غطاء على رؤوسهن وصدورهن”، لكنه لم يقل.

هل تطلب هذه الأية من النساء تغطية رؤوسهن؟

لا، إن الإشارة إلى ” غطاء الرأس” ليست أمراً لتغطية الرأس. نظراً لأنه يجب ارتداء أغطية الرأس عادة في شبه الجزيرة العربية عندما نزلت الآية، فإن الآية تشير إلى أن تغطية الصدر يمكن القيام به عن طريق ارتداء غطاء رأس طويل على الصدر. في الوقت الحاضر بالطبع، يستطيع القميص أن يفعل ما هو أفضل بتغطية صدر المرأة أكثر مما يفعله غطاء الرأس.

Head coverings to protect from heat

Some people may argue that head coverings (Arabic: khimaar) used in Arabia when the verse was revealed were not meant to protect people from the heat but rather specifically to hide a women’s hair from men in general. This argument seems invalid since verse 16:81 indicates that God created garments one kind of which was to protect people (both men and women) from the heat.

وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلَالًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الْجِبَالِ أَكْنَانًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ سَرَابِيلَ تَقِيكُمُ الْحَرَّ وَسَرَابِيلَ تَقِيكُم بَأْسَكُمْ …

The first reference to “garments” in the verse above must refer to head coverings because if it’s hot outside, people all over the world would cover their head. Other types of garments (e.g. shirt, pants, etc), do not protect people from the heat but rather make them feel more hot, unless the protection from heat was to prevent skin cancer, which was probably not the intent of this verse.

Also note that the Arabic word used for “garments” is “sarabeel” which according to the Edward Lanes Lexicon means “anything that is worn” so a head-covering falls into that category.

الشعر كــ زينة

سيجادل بعض الناس أن شعر المرأة زينة ولذلك لا يجب عليها إظهاره وفقاً للبند 1. هذا الجدال غير صالح بسبب

  1. الجمال الطبيعي لشعر الشخص مشابه تماماً للجمال الطبيعي لوجه الشخص وبالتالي هو مستثنى وفقاً للبند 2.
  2. من غير المنطقي أن نعتبر الشعر في نفس فئة الصدر، خصوصاً وأن الرجال أيضاً يمتلكون شعر والذي قد يكون سبباً للجذب عند النساء.
  3. ليست كل النساء لديها شعر جميل. بعض النساء تمتلك شعراً غير جذاب. بالنسبة لهن، فإن تغطية شعورهن في الواقع يجعلهن أكثر جمالاً. ولذلك لا يمكننا أن نفرض بأن الشعر “زينة” بنفس الطريقة التي يُعتبر فيها الصدر زينة.

الآية 7:26

كما ذُكر في الآية 25:33، فإن القرآن هو التفسير الأفضل. ولذلك، يجب أن ننظر إلى الآيات الأخرى في القرآن لشرح آيات مؤكدة أفضل من اتخاذ افتراضات متحيزة.

في الآية 7:26، نقرأ أن الله صنع لباساً للناس (الرجال والنساء معاً) لتغطية أعضائهم الشخصية والتي، إذا تم إظهارها، فهي سبب للعار. قد يوافق أكثر الناس أن شعر النساء ليس سبباً للعار أو عضو خاص وبنفس الأمر الصدر الذي يعتبر عضو خاص. وبصرف النظر عن هذا، يقول الله كيفما اخترت أن تغطي جسمك بالملابس ، فإن الأهم هو أن تتصرف باستقامة.

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ قَدْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَارِي سَوْآتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ…

وفقاً لمعجم إدوارد لينز، فإن تعريف سَوْآتِكُمْ هي الأعضاء الخاصة الخارجية التي هي سبب للعار.

http://lexicon.quranic-research.net/data/12_s/240_swO.html#sawoCapN

لاحظ أيضاً أنه وفقاً لمعجم إدوارد لينز، فإن تعريف كلمة رِيشًا هي ملابس تشير إلى الحُلِيْ والجمال (الزينة).

http://lexicon.quranic-research.net/data/10_r/250_ryX.html#riyXN

لباس التَّقْوَىٰ

تذكر الآية 7:26 أعلاه أن لباس التَّقْوَىٰ هو أفضل أنواع الثياب. إذاً، ما هو الْبِرَّ؟ الإجابة موجودة في الآية القرآنية 2:177 أدناه.

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا ۖ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ

لاحظ كيف أن البر الحقيقي من وجهة نظر قرآنية لا علاقة له إطلاقاً بنوع الملابس التي ترتديها النساء أو كيف يرتدونها. بشكل واضح، يعتبر الله أن متطلبات الملابس المحددة أقل أهمية من الإيمان بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله وتقاسم الثروة والصلاة، إلخ. لعل ذلك يتجلى في أن الآيات المتعلقة بملابس النساء هي “توصيات” للنساء لتقليل الانتباه غير المرغوب به وإمكانية التعرض للمضايقة بدلاً من الوصايا المتشددة التي تحدد ما إذا كنت ستذهب إلى الجحيم أو لا.

جدال الحديث

سيجادل بعض المسلمين أنه في مكان ما في آلاف الأحاديث هناك قول يطلب من النساء تغطية شعرهن. إثبات أن الحديث لا يمكن استخدامه للشريعة الإسلامية يمكن الاطلاع عليه في

إثبات أن الحديث ليس شرعاً إسلامياً صالحاً

التأثير اليهودي

لدى اليهود الأرثوذكس ممارسات معينة مثل ختان الذكور، أساليب الذبح الخاصة لإنتاج لحم الكوشر و “الشعر المستعار”، وهو شرط المرأة المتزوجة لتغطية شعرها. لدى المسلمين ممارسات متشابهة حتى ولو كانت لم تُذكر ولم تُطلب في القرآن. من غير المثير للدهشة، أن الكتاب المقدس اليهودي لا يطلب من النساء تغطية شعرهن. على العكس، جاء هذا المطلب اليهودي من مصادر ثانوية يهودية (التلمود). تتناول هذه المقالة بالتفصيل الممارسات والأصول اليهودية فيما يتعلق بتغطية شعر المرأة. بناء على التشابه بين اليهودية والإسلام وحقيقة أن اليهودية جاءت قبل الإسلام، فمن الممكن والمعقول الاعتقاد بأن بعض العلماء المسلمين تأثروا منذ فترة طويلة باليهودية لتبني هذه الممارسات اليهودية في الإسلام.

الخلاصة

يجب أن يوضح التحليل أعلاه أن المرأة مطالبة بتغطية صدرها وليس شعرها.

مُلحق

تشابه للمساعدة على فهم الآية 24:31

سيستمر بعض الناس في جدال أن الآية 24:31 لا تزال تعني أنه على النساء تغطية رؤوسهن أو شعرهن لأنها تشير إلى “تغطية الرأس”. للمساعدة على فهم لماذا هم مخطئون، فيما يلي تشابه مكتوب مشابه للآية 24:31 بأربع بنود.

و قُلْ للأطفال ..

  1. ألا يتركوا ألعابهم في أي مكان عندما ينتهون من اللعب
  2. استثناء ألعاب معينة لا يمكن وضعها جانباً بسهولة
  3. واجعلهم يضعون أقلام التلوين الخاصة بهم في حقائبهم
  4. وعدم ترك ألعابهم في المطبخ وغرفة المعيش

السياق

من الواضح أن هذا البيان له علاقة بالأطفال وأين يضعون ألعابهم.

استثناء

بعض الألعاب مستثناه من وضعها جانباً لأنها قد تكون كبيرة جداً.

أقلام التلوين

أقلام التلوين، التي تعتبر ألعاب، ليست مستثناة من وضعها جانباً. بما أن كل طفل لديه حقيبة، فإنهم يستطيعون وضع أقلامهم التلوين في حقائبهم.

هل يطلب هذا البيان أن يرتدي الأطفال حقائبهم على ظهورهم مثل حقيبة الظهر؟

لا، كلمة “الظهر” لم يتم ذكرها في أي مكان في البيان.

هل يطلب هذا البيان أن يكون لدى الأطفال حقيبة؟

لا. الإشارة إلى “حقيبة” ليست أمراً بالحصول على حقيبة. بما أن الأطفال عادة يكون لديهم حقائب، على سبيل المثال حقيبة طعام، حقيبة ظهر، حقيبة رياضة، إلخ، يقترح البيان أنه يمكن وضع أقلام التلوين في حقائبهم. في هذه الأيام يرتدي الأطفال سراويل ب جيوب. يمكنهم ببساطة وضع أقلامهم التلوين في جيوبهم. لا ضرورة للحقيبة. علاوة على ذلك، فإن سياق البيان يتعلق بوضع الألعاب جانباً، وليس ما إذا كنت ستحمل حقيبة أو لا.

الخلاصة

من هذا التشابه، نرى على الرغم من أن البيان يقترح على الأطفال وضع أقلامهم التلوين في حقائبهم، هذا لا يعني حرفياً ولا يعني وفقاً للسياق أن الأطفال مطالبون بامتلاك حقيبة. هذا مشابه للآية 24:31 حيث يقترح الله من النساء بتغطية صدورهن بغطاء الرأس لإخفاء زينتهن. هذا لا يعني حرفياً ولا يعني وفقاً للسياق أن النساء مطالبات بتغطية شعرهن.

Bukti Hadits Tidak Valid Hukum Islam

Artikel ini awalnya ditulis dalam bahasa Inggris. Ini adalah terjemahannya dalam bahasa Indonesia.

Sebagian besar orang Muslim, selain Al-Quran, percaya bahwa hadits adalah sumber hukum Islam yang sah. Argumen di bawah ini dengan mudah membuktikan menggunakan Al-Quran dan logika dasar bahwa kebanyakan Muslim tidak hanya salah, tetapi mereka juga kafir menurut Al-Quran, karena mereka menghakimi menggunakan hadits.

Mari kita mulai.

Hanya menghakimi dengan kitab suci Tuhan (Taurat, Al-Quran)

Sebelum Tuhan menurunkan Al-Quran kepada Muhammad, Ia mengirim Taurat kepada Musa untuk orang Yahudi menghakimi dengannya. Pada saat itu, para nabi, para rabi Yahudi dan para ulama Yahudi hanya menghakimi menggunakan Taurat. Ini dibuktikan dalam ayat 5:44 di mana Tuhan juga memberitahu orang-orang untuk tidak menukar ayat-ayat-Nya dengan yang lain, misalnya hukum buatan manusia, dan siapa pun yang tidak menghakimi dengan apa yang diturunkan Tuhan, misalnya Taurat dan Al-Quran, maka mereka adalah orang yang kafir.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
Sungguh, Kami yang menurunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) Kitab Taurat; di dalamnya (ada) petunjuk dan cahaya. Dengan Kitab itu para nabi yang berserah diri kepada Tuhan menghakimi atas perkara orang Yahudi, demikian juga para rabi dan ulama mereka, sebab mereka diperintahkan memelihara kitab-kitab Tuhan dan mereka menjadi saksi terhadapnya. Karena itu janganlah kamu takut kepada manusia, (tetapi) takutlah kepada-Ku. Dan janganlah kamu jual ayat-ayat-Ku dengan harga murah. Barangsiapa tidak menghakimi dengan apa yang diturunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) Tuhan, maka mereka itulah orang-orang kafir. (Al-Quran: 5:44)

Setelah Musa meninggal, pada abad ke-2 para rabi Yahudi menyusun sebuah buku berjudul Talmud yang berisi

  • Mishnah (Taurat Lisan / perkataan yang diduga atau hadits Musa)
    Menurut tradisi Yahudi, Taurat Lisan diturunkan secara lisan di rantai tak terputus dari generasi ke generasi sampai akhirnya ditulis. Ini sangat mirip dengan hadits Islam / dugaan perkataan Muhammad).
  • Gemara
    Serangkaian komentar dan debat mengenai Mishnah.

Saat ini, sebagian besar orang Yahudi menghakimi dengan kitab suci (Taurat) dan Talmud yang berisi perkataan yang diduga dari Musa. Ini sangat mirip dengan bagaimana para pengikut Al-Quran pada awalnya hanya menghakimi dengan Al-Quran. Setelah buku-buku hadits (dugaan perkataan Muhammad) ditulis, pengikut Quran mulai menghakimi dengan Al-Quran dan hadits.

Garis waktu kejadian

TahunKejadian
Dahulu kalaTuhan menurunkan Taurat kepada Musa
Dahulu kala Para nabi, rabi dan ulama Yahudi menghakimi hanya menggunakan Taurat
~200 CE Para rabi Yahudi menulis Talmud yang berisi dugaan perkataan Musa
~ 200 CE ke depanOrang-orang Yahudi menghakimi menggunakan Taurat dan Talmud
609 – 632 CETuhan menurunkan Quran kepada Muhammad
~ 800 CEBukhari menulis hadits yang berisi dugaan perkataan Muhammad
~ 800 CE ke depanOrang-orang Muslim menghakimi menggunakan Al-Quran dan hadits

Hanya hakim menggunakan Al-Quran

Quran ayat 45:6 secara khusus memberitahu orang-orang untuk hanya menghakimi dengan Al-Quran dan bukan hadits. Perhatikan bahwa kata Arab yang digunakan untuk hadits adalah hadits dan bukan kata lain.

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ
Itulah ayat-ayat Tuhan yang Kami bacakan kepadamu dalam kebenaran; maka dengan hadits (bahasa Arab: ha-deeth) mana lagi mereka akan percaya setelah Tuhan dan ayat-ayat-Nya. (Al-Quran: 45:6)

Ayat-ayat Tuhan adalah Al-Quran. Hadits jelas bukan ayat Tuhan. Tidak ada orang yang waras, termasuk pengikut hadits, yang akan mengatakan bahwa hadits itu ayat-ayat dari Tuhan.

Al-Quran ayat 5:44 dengan jelas mengatakan bahwa siapa pun yang menghakimi dengan apa pun selain Al-Quran adalah orang kafir.

… وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
Barangsiapa tidak menghakimi dengan apa yang diturunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) Tuhan, maka mereka itulah orang-orang kafir. (Al-Quran: 5:44)

Apa yang “diturunkan” (bahasa Arab: an-zal) oleh Tuhan adalah Al-Quran, dan sebelum itu, Taurat. Keduanya adalah kitab suci dari Tuhan sendiri. Dugaan perkataan (hadits) Musa dan Muhammad tidak “diturunkan” oleh Tuhan. Perhatikan penggunaan kata “diturunkan” (bahasa Arab: an-zal) dalam ayat-ayat berikut yang menegaskan bahwa apa yang “diturunkan” Tuhan adalah Al-Quran dan bukan hadits.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
Sesungguhnya Kami menurunkannya (bahasa Arab: an-zal) sebagai Qur’an berbahasa Arab, agar kamu mengerti. (Quran: 12:2)
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَعِيدِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ أَوْ يُحْدِثُ لَهُمْ ذِكْرًا
Dan demikianlah Kami menurunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) Al-Qur’an dalam bahasa Arab, dan Kami telah menjelaskan berulang-ulang di dalamnya ancaman, agar mereka menghindari dari dosa, atau agar (Al-Qur’an) itu memberi peringatan bagi mereka. (Quran: 20:113)
لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
Sekiranya Kami turunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) ini kepada sebuah gunung, pasti kamu akan melihatnya tunduk terpecah belah disebabkan takut kepada Tuhan. Dan perumpamaan-perumpamaan itu Kami buat untuk manusia agar mereka berpikir. (Al-Quran: 59:21)

Dalam ayat 13:37, kita membaca bahwa Tuhan menurunkan “undang-undang Arab” yang menegaskan bahwa Al-Quran Arab adalah hukum yang harus dipakai untuk menghakimi dan bukan buku lain.

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ حُكْمًا عَرَبِيًّا ۚ…
Dan demikianlah Kami telah menurunkannya (bahasa Arab: an-zal) sebagai peraturan (yang benar) dalam bahasa Arab. … (Al-Quran: 13:37)

Hadits itu bukan wahyu

Sebagian pengikut hadits akan mengklaim bahwa, selain Al-Qur’an, perkataan sehari-hari Nabi Muhammad juga merupakan wahyu dari Tuhan. Mereka dapat dengan mudah dibuktikan salah sebagai berikut.

Bukti 1:

Quran ayat 66:1 menunjukkan situasi di mana Tuhan mempertanyakan Muhammad setelah Muhammad melarang sesuatu yang Tuhan buat sah. Jika semua yang dikatakan Muhammad adalah wahyu dari Tuhan, lalu mengapa Tuhan mempertanyakan Muhammad tentang sesuatu yang dikatakan Muhammad? Logikanya, karena tidak semua yang dikatakan Muhammad adalah wahyu dari Tuhan.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ ۖ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ …
Wahai Nabi, mengapa kamu mengharamkan apa yang Tuhan telah membuat halal untukmu, mencari persetujuan dari istrimu? … (Quran 66:1)

Bukti 2:

Dalam ayat 69:44-46, Tuhan mengancam akan membunuh Nabi Muhammad jika Muhammad membuat perkataan palsu tentang Tuhan. Ini membuktikan bahwa tidak semua yang dikatakan Muhammad adalah wahyu dari Tuhan karena jika semua perkataannya adalah wahyu, Tuhan tidak perlu membuat ancaman ini. Jika Tuhan ingin mengatakan bahwa setiap kata yang keluar dari mulut Muhammad adalah wahyu dari Tuhan, Dia bisa saja mengatakan itu tanpa membuat ancaman.

وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ
Dan jika dia (Muhammad) mengada-adakan perkataan atas (nama) Kami (Tuhan), pasti Kami akan pegang dia pada tangan kanannya; kemudian Kami akan potong pembuluh jantungnya. (Al-Quran 69:44-46)

Bukti 3:

Hadis Sahih al-Bukhari #1629 menunjukkan bahwa Muhammad melarang sholat saat matahari terbit (fajar) dan matahari terbenam (maghrib). Ini jelas adalah kontradiksi besar dengan Quran yang bahkan pasti disetujui oleh pengikut hadits.

Dikisahkan `Abdullah: Saya mendengar Nabi (ﷺ) melarang sholat pada saat matahari terbit dan terbenam.

Sahih al-Bukhari 1629
https://sunnah.com/bukhari/25/113

Semua Muslim, bahkan mereka yang menggunakan hadits sebagai hukum Islam, akan terus sholat fajar dan maghrib meskipun hadits sahih ini melarangnya. Dalam hal ini, mereka dapat mengatakan bahwa meskipun hadits ini sahih, mereka memilih untuk mengabaikannya karena bertentangan dengan Al-Quran, tetapi mereka akan mengatakan bahwa hadits lain masih valid. Dengan kata lain, mereka akhirnya memilih untuk mengikuti beberapa hadits dan mengabaikan yang lain. Maka dari itu, tidak mengherankan bahwa Quran ayat 68:36-38 mempertanyakan orang-orang yang menghakimi dengan buku selain Quran (misalnya buku hadits) di mana mereka memilih semaunya hukum mana yang mereka ingin ikuti.

مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ
Mengapa kamu (berbuat demikian)? Bagaimana kamu menghakimi? Atau apakah kamu mempunyai buku yang kamu pelajari yang memang untuk kamu di dalamnya adalah apapun yang kamu pilih? (68:36-38)

Fakta bahwa pengikut hadits mengakui bahwa beberapa hadits sahih tidak dapat diterima seharusnya membuat mereka curiga dan mempertanyakan keaslian semua hadits lainnya, bahkan jika hadits lain kedengarannya benar.

Nabi Muhammad hanya memperingatkan menggunakan Al-Qur’an

Sebagian pengikut hadits, dengan berpikir bahwa mereka meniru Muhammad, akan menggunakan hadits untuk memperingatkan orang lain tentang hukum Islam. Ironisnya, Quran ayat 50:45 dan 6:19 membuktikan bahwa Muhammad sendiri hanya memperingatkan menggunakan Quran.

… فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ
… Maka berilah (ya Muhammad) peringatan dengan Al-Qur’an kepada siapa pun yang takut kepada ancaman-Ku. (50:45)
… وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ …
Al-Qur’an ini diwahyukan kepadaku agar dengannya aku memberi peringatan kepadamu dan kepada siapa pun yang mendapatnya… (6:19)

Nabi Muhammad hanya mengikuti Quran

Pengikut hadits berpikir bahwa mereka mengikuti jalan Muhammad dengan mengikuti hadits tentang dia. Ironisnya, Muhammad mengatakan dalam Quran ayat 50:45 bahwa dia sendiri hanya mengikuti Quran.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِن تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ
Dan apabila dibacakan kepada mereka ayat-ayat Kami dengan jelas, orang-orang yang tidak mengharapkan pertemuan dengan Kami berkata, “Datangkanlah kitab selain Al-Qur’an ini atau gantikan (isinya Al-Quran).” Katakanlah (Muhammad), “Tidaklah pantas bagiku menggantinya atas kemauanku sendiri. Aku hanya mengikuti apa yang diwahyukan kepadaku. …” (10:15)

Argumen “Bagaimana cara sholat”

Sebagian pengikut hadits pasti akan memberitahu Anda bahwa hadits diperlukan untuk hukum Islam karena hadits menjelaskan bagaimana cara sholat. Yang tidak disadari oleh orang-orang ini adalah bahwa

  1. Tidak seorang pun belajar sholat dengan membaca hadits. Sebenarnya, mereka belajar dari orang lain seperti orang tua mereka.
  2. Hadits tidak menjelaskan dengan jelas bagaimana cara sholat. Sholat adalah ritual sehari-hari. Fakta bahwa hadits tidak banyak bicara tentang bagaimana sholat seharusnya membuat Anda curiga tentang keaslian hadits.
  3. Walaupun jika hadits benar-benar menjelaskan cara sholat, maka karena buku-buku hadits tidak ditulis sampai sekitar 200 tahun setelah kematian Muhammad, maka selama 2 abad setelah Muhammad wafat, tidak ada yang bisa sholat karena buku-buku hadits belum ditulis. Tidak masuk akal bahwa orang tidak bisa sholat selama 200 tahun karena mereka sedang menunggu Bukhari untuk menulis buku haditsnya.

Masuk akal bahwa Tuhan tidak memberikan petunjuk langkah demi langkah tentang cara sholat dalam Al-Quran karena Tuhan tahu bahwa orang pada awalnya akan belajar dengan mengikuti Muhammad dan kemudian setelah Muhammad meninggal, orang akan belajar dari masyarakat mereka, misalnya ketika mereka sholat di masjid pada hari Jumat. Kenyataannya, pengetahuan tentang cara sholat diturunkan dari satu generasi ke generasi lain, bukan dari membaca ribuan hadits mencoba mencari tahu seperti teka-teki yang besar.

Argumen “tafsir” (interpretasi)

Sebagian pengikut hadits akan berpendapat bahwa tafsir saya terhadap ayat-ayat di atas, atau ayat lain dalam hal ini, tidak benar. Mereka berpikir bahwa hanya tafsir mereka adalah tafsir yang benar. Al-Quran membahas masalah tafsir dalam ayat 3:7 di mana Tuhan mengatakan bahwa ada dua jenis ayat.

1. Ayat spesifik (jelas)

Ayat ini adalah dasar dari Al-Quran dan karena ayat-ayat ini sudah jelas, penafsiran tidak diperlukan.

2. Ayat tidak spesifik (tidak jelas)

Ayat ini adalah ayat yang tidak jelas dan hanya Tuhan yang tahu arti yang sebenarnya. Ayat-ayat yang tidak jelas ini adalah ujian bagi orang-orang yang ingin menafsirkannya dengan cara tertentu untuk mendukung pendapat dan minat pribadi mereka.

هُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ ۖ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ
Dialah yang menurunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) Kitab (Al-Qur’an) kepadamu (Muhammad). Di antaranya ada ayat-ayat yang spesifik dan jelas, itulah dasar Kitab (Al-Qur’an), dan yang lain tidak spesifik. Orang-orang yang dalam hatinya ada penyimpangan [dari kebenaran], mereka mengikuti yang tidak spesifik untuk mencari-cari perselisihan dan untuk mencari-cari interpretasi yang sesuai dengan keinginannya, padahal tidak ada yang mengetahui arti yang sebenarnya kecuali Tuhan. Dan orang-orang yang berpengetahuan berkata, “Kami percaya kepadanya (Al-Qur’an), Seluruhnnya (Al-Quran) adalah dari Tuhan kita.” Tidak ada yang dapat mengambil pelajaran kecuali orang yang berakal. (3:7)

Karena ayat-ayat yang digunakan dalam argumen saya di atas jelas, maka argumen pengikut hadits bahwa interpretasi saya itu salah tidak valid.

Argumen “Tradisi”

Sebagian pengikut hadits berpendapat bahwa tradisi Islam harus dihormati dan dipertimbangkan dalam semua urusan Islam. Mereka juga berpendapat bahwa karena secara tradisional orang Muslim telah mengikuti hadits, maka umat Islam harus terus mengikuti hadits. Argumen ini tidak valid karena tidak semua tradisi benar dan tradisi bukanlah dasar agama. Tidak ada dalam Al-Qur’an yang mengatakan bahwa pengikutnya harus mengikuti tradisi dan praktik nenek moyang mereka. Sebaliknya, Al-Quran sebenarnya memberikan contoh yang dengan jelas menunjukkan bahwa tradisi tidak ada tempatnya dalam agama dan jelas bukan pengganti perintah Al-Quran yang jelas.

Dalam ayat 21:52-53 nabi Ibrahim bertanya kepada ayahnya dan kaumnya mengapa mereka menyembah patung. Jawaban mereka adalah bahwa mereka hanya mengikuti tradisi nenek moyang mereka. Jelas tradisi nenek moyang mereka salah.

إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا لَهَا عَابِدِينَ
Ketika dia (Ibrahim) berkata kepada ayahnya dan kaumnya, “Patung-patung apa ini yang kamu tekun menyembahnya?” Mereka menjawab, “Kami lihat nenek moyang kami menyembahnya.”

Dalam ayat 2:170, ayah dan kaum Ibrahim diperintahkan untuk mengikuti apa yang Tuhan turunkan tetapi mereka malah bersikeras mengikuti tradisi nenek moyang mereka. Tuhan kemudian berkata bahwa nenek moyang mereka tidak tahu apa-apa dan mereka tidak mendapat petunjuk (hidayah).

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۗ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ
Dan apabila dikatakan kepada mereka, “Ikutilah apa yang telah diturunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) Tuhan.” Mereka menjawab, “Daripada itu, kami akan mengikuti apa yang dilakukan nenek moyang kami.” Padahal, nenek moyang mereka itu tidak mengetahui apa pun, dan tidak mendapat petunjuk (hidayah). (2:170)

Argumen “2,5% zakat”

Sebagian pengikut hadits berpendapat bahwa tanpa hadits, umat Islam tidak akan tahu bahwa mereka harus membayar 2,5% dari pendapatan mereka untuk memenuhi persyaratan zakat yang mereka yakini benar-benar hanya untuk orang miskin atau yang membutuhkan uang. Ada beberapa masalah dengan argumen ini.

1. Setiap orang harus membayar zakat, bukan hanya Muslim

Pengikut hadits secara keliru percaya bahwa hanya orang Muslim yang harus membayar zakat. Quran ayat 41:7 membuktikan bahwa bahkan orang yang bukan Muslim termasuk musyrik harus membayar zakat.

وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ
“… Dan celakalah kaum musyrik (41:6) yang tidak memberikan ‘Zakat’ dan di akhirat mereka adalah orang-orang kafir. (41:7)”

2. Orang sudah membayar zakat jauh sebelum Muhammad lahir

Dalam ayat 19:31, 19:55, 2:83, 7: 156, 5:12, 21:73, 4: 162, dan 98: 5 kita melihat bukti bahwa banyak sekali orang sudah membayar zakat jauh sebelum nabi Muhammad, misalnya nabi Ibrahim membayar zakat. Karena itu, berapa persentase pendapatan untuk membayar zakat tidak tergantung pada sesuatu yang diduga adalah perkataan oleh Muhammad (hadits).

Apa sebenarnya zakat itu?

Karena setiap orang harus membayar zakat dan uang zakat sering digunakan untuk membantu orang miskin, maka masuk akal jika zakat adalah pajak pemerintah karena pajak pendapatan digunakan untuk kepentingan masyarakat termasuk orang miskin. Di AS, lebih dari 15% pajak pendapatan federal digunakan untuk program sosial untuk membantu orang yang membutuhkan bantuan finansial. Ini adalah jumlah yang jauh lebih besar daripada 2,5% yang tertulis di hadits untuk memenuhi persyaratan zakat. Ironisnya, sebagian negara-negara Islam di mana orang-orang hanya membayar 2,5% untuk zakat adalah negara-negara termiskin di dunia. Sebaliknya, di AS tempat semua orang membayar zakat (pajak pendapatan), orang yang membutuhkan bantuan finansial bisa mendapatkannya dan keluar dari kemiskinan.

Hadis Terbaik

Tidak mengherankan bahwa hadits terbaik adalah hadits Tuhan, yaitu Al-Quran. Oleh karena itu, Tuhan mengatakan kepada semua orang untuk hanya menghakimi dengan Al-Quran dan bukan dengan sumber yang lain.

اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُّتَشَابِهًا مَّثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ
Tuhan telah menurunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) hadits (perkataan) yang paling baik – buku (Al-Qur’an) yang serupa (ayat-ayatnya) lagi berulang-ulang. (Al-Quran: 39:23)

Contoh-contoh

Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh di mana hadits bertentangan dengan Alquran dan umat Islam menghakimi dengan hadits daripada Alquran.

Sholat Jum’at

Banyak orang Muslim percaya bahwa wanita tidak diharuskan sholat berjamaah pada hari Jumat. Kepercayaan ini berasal dari hadits. Namun, itu bertentangan langsung dengan Quran ayat 62:9 yang menginstruksikan semua orang yang beriman (pria dan wanita) untuk sholat bersama pada hari Jumat.

2,5% zakat

Sebagian besar orang Muslim percaya bahwa mereka hanya diharuskan membayar 2,5% dari pendapatan mereka untuk memenuhi persyaratan zakat. Batas ini ditemukan dalam hadits tetapi tidak ada dalam Al-Quran.

Emas dan sutra

Larangan bagi pria Muslim untuk memakai emas dan sutra berasal dari hadits. Tidak ada dalam Qur’an bahwa Tuhan melarang pemakaian emas dan sutra.

Musik dan bernyanyi

Larangan bagi umat Islam untuk mendengarkan musik dan bernyanyi berasal dari hadits. Tidak ada dalam Qur’an bahwa Tuhan melarang ini.

Haji tanpa “muhrim”

Seorang “muhrim” dipahami sebagai laki-laki yang tidak sah untuk menikahi wanita yang bersangkutan, misalnya ayah, saudara laki-laki, anak laki-laki, kakek, dll. Dengan demikian, wanita Muslim percaya bahwa mereka tidak boleh melakukan ibadah haji kecuali kalau salah satu dari “muhrim” mereka menemani mereka. Kepercayaan ini berasal dari hadits yang mengatakan bahwa tidak boleh ada laki-laki yang akan ditemani seorang wanita sendirian dan di tempat sunyi. Dengan jutaan peziarah haji mengunjungi Mekah setiap tahun, berada dalam keadaan “bersunyi-sunyian” adalah kebalikan dari apa yang sebenarnya terjadi. Kepercayaan ini biasa terjadi dalam budaya yang didominasi pria seperti di Arab Saudi di mana aturannya jelas tidak adil karena pembatasan ini tidak berlaku untuk pria. Tidak ada hukum seperti itu dalam Quran yang melarang wanita melakukan haji tanpa “muhrim”.

33% alokasi aset maksimum dalam wasiat

Sebagian orang Muslim berpendapat bahwa maksimum yang dapat Anda alokasikan dalam surat wasiat adalah 1/3 (33%) dari total aset Anda. Nilai ini tidak ditemukan di dalam Al-Quran. Itu berasal dari hadits.

Hadits sebagai tafsir (penjelasan) dari Quran

Banyak orang Muslim percaya bahwa hadits diperlukan untuk menjelaskan Quran. Namun, ini bertentangan langsung dengan Al-Quran yang mengatakan bahwa

  • Al-Quran adalah hadits terbaik (39:23)
  • Al-Quran lengkap (6:115)
  • Al-Quran tidak kehilangan apa-apa (6:38)
  • Al-Qur’an mengandung penjelasan yang rinci (6:114, 12:111, 41:3, 11:1)
  • Al-Qur’an adalah klarifikasi untuk semua hal (16:89)
  • Al-Qur’an adalah tafsir terbaik (penjelasan) dari dirinya sendiri (25:33)

Kesimpulan

Bukti-bukti di atas sangat dan cukup jelas bahwa hadits bukan hanya merupakan sumber hukum Islam yang tidak benar, tetapi mengikuti dan menghakimi dengan hadits, menurut Quran ayat 5:44, menjadikan Anda seorang kafir!

… وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
Barangsiapa tidak menghakimi dengan apa yang diturunkan (bahasa Arab: an-zal) Tuhan, maka mereka itulah orang-orang kafir. (Al-Quran: 5:44)

Proof the Hadith is Not Valid Islamic Law

This article has been translated into other languages:

  • Arabic
  • Indonesian
  • Urdu (coming soon)
  • Hindi (coming soon)
  • Farsi (coming soon)
  • Turkish (coming soon)

Most Muslims believe that, in addition to the Quran, the hadith is a valid source of Islamic law. The arguments below easily prove using the Quran and basic logic that most Muslims are not only wrong, but they are also kafir according to the Quran because they judge using the hadith.

Let’s begin.

Only judge by God’s scriptures (Torah, Quran)

Before God sent down the Quran to Muhammad, He sent down the Torah to Moses for Jews to judge by. At that time, prophets, Jewish rabbis and scholars only judged using the Torah. This is proven in verse 5:44 where God also tells people to not to exchange His verses with anything else, e.g. man-made laws, and that whoever does not judge by what God sent down, e.g. Torah, Quran, then they are disbelievers.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
Indeed, We sent down (Arabic: an-zal) the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to God] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of God, and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what God has sent down (Arabic: an-zal), then it is those who are the disbelievers. (Quran: 5:44)

After Moses died, in the 2nd century CE rabbis compiled a book called the Talmud containing the

  • Mishnah (Oral Torah / supposed sayings or hadith of Moses)
    According to Jewish tradition, the Oral Torah was passed down orally in an unbroken chain from generation to generation until it was finally committed to writing. This is very similar to Islamic hadith / supposed sayings of Muhammad). Hadith compilers, e.g. Bukhari, may have even gotten the idea to compile their hadith books from the Mishnah.
  • Gemara
    A series of running commentaries and debates concerning the Mishnah. The equivalent may be Quranic or hadith tafsir (exegesis).

Nowadays, most Jews judge by scripture (Torah) and the Talmud which contains the supposed sayings of Moses. This is very similar to how followers of the Quran at first only judged by the Quran until the hadith books (supposed sayings of Muhammad) were written at which time people began judging by both the Quran and the hadith.

Timeline of events

YearEvent
Very long time agoGod sent down the Torah to Moses
Very long time ago Prophets, Jewish rabbis and scholars judged using only the Torah
~200 CE Jewish rabbis wrote the Talmud containing supposed sayings of Moses
~ 200 CE onwards Jews judged using both the Torah and the Talmud
609 – 632 CEGod sent down the Quran to Muhammad
~ 800 CEBukhari wrote the hadith containing supposed sayings of Muhammad
~ 800 CE onwardsMuslims judged using both the Quran and the hadith

Only judge by the Quran

Quran verse 45:6 specifically tells people to only judge by the Quran and not the hadith. Note the Arabic word used for hadith is hadith.

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ
These are the verses (ayat) of God which We recite to you in truth. Then in what hadith (Arabic: ha-deeth) after God and His verses will they believe? (Quran: 45:6)

The verses (ayat) of God are the Quran. The hadith are obviously not verses of God. No one in their right mind, including hadith followers, would call the hadith verses from God.

Quran verse 5:44 clearly states that anyone who judges by anything besides the Quran is a disbeliever (kafir).

… وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
And whoever does not judge by what God has sent down (Arabic: an-zal) – then it is they who are the disbelievers (Arabic: kafirun). (Quran: 5:44)

What God “sent down” (Arabic: an-zal) was the Quran, and prior to that, the Torah, both of which are scriptures from God Himself. Supposed sayings (hadith) of Moses and Muhammad were not “sent down” by God. Notice the use of the phrase “sent down” (Arabic: an-zal) in the following verses which confirm that what God “sent down” was the Quran and not the hadith.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
Indeed, We have sent it down (Arabic: an-zal) as an Arabic Qur’an that you might understand. (Quran: 12:2)
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَعِيدِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ أَوْ يُحْدِثُ لَهُمْ ذِكْرًا
And thus We have sent it down (Arabic: an-zal) as an Arabic Qur’an and have diversified therein the warnings that perhaps they will avoid [sin] or it would cause them remembrance. (Quran: 20:113)
لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
If We had sent down (Arabic: an-zal) this Qur’an upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled and coming apart from fear of Allah . And these examples We present to the people that perhaps they will give thought. (Quran: 59:21)

In verse 13:37, we read that God sent down an “Arabic legislation” which confirms that the Arabic Quran is the law to judge by.

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ حُكْمًا عَرَبِيًّا ۚ…
And thus We have sent down (Arabic: an-zal) this as an Arabic legislation. … (Quran: 13:37)

The hadith is not a revelation

Some hadithers will claim that, in addition to the Quran, Prophet Muhammad’s day-to-day sayings are also somehow revelations from God. They can easily be proven wrong.

Proof 1:

Quran verse 66:1 indicates a situation where God questioned Muhammad after Muhammad forbade something that God made lawful. If everything Muhammad said was a revelation from God, then why would God question Muhammad about something Muhammad said? Logically, because not everything Muhammad said was a revelation from God.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ ۖ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ …
O Prophet, why do you forbid what God has made lawful for you, seeking the approval of your wives? … (Quran 66:1 part)

Proof 2:

In verses 69:44-46, God threatened to kill Prophet Muhammad if Muhammad ever made false statements about God. This proves that not everything Muhammad said was a revelation from God since if everything was, God would not have needed to make this threat.  If God wanted to say that literally every word that came out of Muhammad’s mouth was a revelation from God, He could have just said that without making any threats.

وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ
And if he [Muhammad] had made up about Us [God] some [false] sayings, We would have seized him by the right hand; Then We would have cut from him the aorta. (Quran 69:44-46)

Proof 3:

Hadith Sahih al-Bukhari # 1629 indicates that Muhammad forbade praying at sunrise (fajr) and sunset (maghrib). This is a clear contradiction with the Quran which even hadithers would agree with.

Narrated `Abdullah: I heard the Prophet (ﷺ) forbidding the offering of prayers at the time of sunrise and sunset.

Sahih al-Bukhari 1629
https://sunnah.com/bukhari/25/113

All Muslims, even ones who use the hadith for Islamic law, would continue to pray fajr and maghrib despite this sahih hadith forbidding it. In this case, they may say that even though this hadith is sahih, they choose to ignore it because it contradicts the Quran, but they’ll say that other hadith are still valid. In other words, they end up choosing to follow some hadith and ignoring others. Unsurprisingly, Quran verse 68:36-38 questions these people who judge by a book (e.g. the hadith books) in which they pick and choose whichever laws they want to follow.

مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ
What is [the matter] with you? How do you judge? Or do you have a book in which you learn that indeed for you in it is whatever you choose? (68:36-38)

The fact that hadithers acknowledge that some sahih hadith are unacceptable should make them question the authenticity of all other hadith, even if they sound acceptable.

Prophet Muhammad only warned using the Quran

Some hadithers, in thinking that they are imitating Muhammad, will use the hadith to warn other people of Islamic laws. Ironically, Quran verses 50:45 and 6:19 prove that Muhammad himself only warned using the Quran.

… فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ
… Therefore [O Muhammad] remind by the Qur’an whoever fears My threat. (50:45 part)
… وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ …
… this Qur’an was revealed to me (Muhammad) that I may warn you thereby and whomever it reaches … (6:19 part)

Prophet Muhammad only followed the Quran

Hadithers think that they are following Muhammad’s way by following the hadith about him. Ironically, Muhammad says himself in Quran verse 50:45 that he himself only follows the Quran.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِن تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ
…And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, those who do not expect the meeting with Us say, “Bring us a Qur’an other than this or change it.” Say, [O Muhammad], “It is not for me to change it on my own accord. I only follow what is revealed to me. … (10:15)

“How to pray” argument

Hadithers will inevitably tell you that the hadith are necessary for Islamic law because it explains how to pray. What these people don’t realize is that 

  1. No one learns how to pray by reading the hadith. Instead, they learn from other people like their parents.
  2. The hadith does not clearly explain how to pray. Considering that prayer is a daily ritual, the fact that the hadith doesn’t say much about how to pray should make you question the authenticity of the hadith in general.
  3. Even if the hadith did clearly explain how to pray, then since the hadith books were not written until ~200 years after Muhammad’s death, then for 2 centuries after Muhammad died, no one could pray because the hadith books had not been written yet. It is illogical to believe that people could not pray for 200 years because they were waiting for Bukhari to write his hadith book.

It is reasonable to believe that God did not provide step-by-step instructions on how to pray in the Quran because God knew that people at first would learn by following Muhammad and then after Muhammad died, people would learn from their communities, e.g. when they pray at mosques on Friday. In actuality, knowledge of how to pray is passed down from one generation to another, not from reading through thousands of hadith trying to figure it out like some huge jigsaw puzzle.

“Interpretation” argument

Some hadithers will argue that my interpretation of the verses above, or any other verse for that matter, is incorrect. They seem to think that only their interpretation is the correct interpretation. The Quran addresses the issue of interpretation in verse 3:7 where God states that there are two types of verses.

1. Specific (clear) verses

These verses are the foundation of the Quran and since they are clear, interpretation isn’t necessary. The verses mean what they say because the meaning is literal.

2. Unspecific (unclear) verses

These verses are unclear and only God knows the correct meaning. These unclear verses exist as a test for people who want to interpret them in a particular way so as to justify their personal opinion and interests.

هُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ ۖ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ
It is He who has sent down (Arabic: an-zal) to you, [O Muhammad], the Book; in it are verses [that are] precise – they are the foundation of the Book – and others unspecific. As for those in whose hearts is deviation [from truth], they will follow that of it which is unspecific, seeking discord and seeking an interpretation [suitable to them]. And no one knows its [true] interpretation except God. But those firm in knowledge say, “We believe in it. All [of it] is from our Lord.” And no one will be reminded except those of understanding. (3:7)

Since the verses used in my arguments above are clear, then the “incorrect interpretation” argument is invalid.

“Tradition” argument

Some hadithers will argue that Islamic tradition must be respected and taken into consideration and since traditionally Muslims have followed the hadith, then Muslims must continue to do so. This argument is invalid because not all traditions are correct and tradition is not a basis for religion. Nowhere in the Quran does it say that followers should follow tradition and the practices of their ancestors. Conversely, the Quran actually provides an example which clearly shows how tradition has no place in religion and is most definitely not a replacement for clear commandments in the Quran.

In verses 21:52-53 Abraham asked his own father and his people why they worshiped statues. Their answer was that they were just following the tradition of their forefathers which was obviously incorrect.

إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا لَهَا عَابِدِينَ
When he (Prophet Abraham) said to his father and his people, “What are these statues to which you are devoted?” They said, “We found our fathers worshippers of them.”

In verse 2:170, Abraham’s father and people were told to follow what God sent down but they instead insisted on following the tradition of their fathers. God then says that their fathers knew nothing and were not they guided.

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۗ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ
And when it is said to them, “Follow what God has sent down (Arabic: an-zal),” they say, “Rather, we will follow that which we found our fathers doing.” Even though their fathers understood nothing, nor were they guided? (2:170)

“2.5% zakat” argument

Some hadithers will argue that without the hadith, Muslims wouldn’t know that they must pay 2.5% of their income to satisfy the requirements of zakat which they believe strictly goes to the poor or needy. There are some issues with this argument.

1. Everyone must pay zakat, not just Muslims

Hadithers incorrectly believe that only Muslims must pay zakat. Quran verse 41:7 proves that even non-Muslims including polytheists must pay zakat.

وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ
…and woe to the polytheists (41:6) who give not the ‘Zakat’ and in the Hereafter they are disbelievers. (41:7)

2. People paid zakat long before Muhammad was born

In verses 19:31, 19:55, 2:83, 7:156, 5:12, 21:73, 4:162, and 98:5 we see proof that many, many groups of people paid zakat going as far back as Abraham himself. Therefore, how much to pay for zakat was not dependent on something Muhammad supposedly said, i.e. the hadith.

What really is zakat?

Since everyone must pay zakat and zakat money is often used to help the poor, then it would make sense that zakat is government taxation since tax revenue is used for the benefit of the community including the poor. In the US, more then 15% of federal tax revenue goes to social programs to help people who need financial help. This is a much larger amount than the 2.5% hadithers claim is the correct amount only Muslims must pay to satisfy zakat requirements. Ironically, Islamic countries where people supposedly only pay 2.5% for zakat are some of the poorest countries in the world. Conversely, in the US where everyone pays zakat (taxes), people who need financial help are able to get it and get out of poverty. More interestingly, the tax rate in Denmark is around 50% and studies have concluded that Danes are the happiest people in the world. That’s maybe because Danes help other Danes via the Danish government (taxes) in many situations, e.g. free healthcare, education, unemployment, etc.

The Best Hadith

Unsurprisingly, the best hadith (statement) is the hadith of God, which is the Quran, which is why God told everyone to only judge by it and nothing else.

اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُّتَشَابِهًا مَّثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ
God has sent down (Arabic: an-zal) the best statement: a consistent Book wherein is reiteration. … (Quran: 39:23)

Examples

Following are some examples where the hadith contradict the Quran and Muslims have judged by the hadith instead of the Quran.

Friday prayer

Many Muslims believe that women are not required to pray in congregation on Friday. This belief originates from the hadith. However, it is in direct contradiction with Quran verse 62:9 which instructs all believers (men and women) to pray together on Fridays.

2.5% zakat

Most Muslims believe that they are only required to pay 2.5% of their income to satisfy zakat requirements. This limit is found in the hadith but nowhere in the Quran.

Gold and silk

The prohibition for Muslim men to wear gold and silk originates from the hadith. Nowhere in the Quran does God forbid this.

Music and singing

The prohibition for Muslims to listen to music and to sing originates from the hadith. Nowhere in the Quran does God forbid this.

Hajj without a “muhrim”

A “muhrim” is understood to be any male who is unlawful for marriage to certain women, e.g. a woman’s father, brother, son, grandfather, etc. As such, Muslim women believe that they can’t perform the Hajj unless one of their “muhrims” accompany them. This belief originates from hadith that says that no man shall be in the company of a woman alone and in seclusion. With millions of Hajj pilgrims visiting Mecca every year, being in a state of “seclusion” is quite the opposite of what actually occurs. This belief is common in male-dominated cultures such as in Saudi Arabia where the rule is clearly one-sided as the restriction does not apply to men. Needless to say, there is no such law in the Quran which prohibits women from performing the Hajj without a “muhrim”.

33% maximum asset allocation in will

Some Muslims will argue that the most you can allocate in a will is 1/3 (33%) of your total assets. This value is nowhere to be found in the Quran. It comes from the hadith.

Hadith as tafsir (explanation) of Quran

Many Muslims believe that the hadith are necessary to explain the Quran. However, this is in direct contradiction to the Quran which states that

  • the Quran is the best hadith (39:23)
  • the Quran is complete (6:115)
  • the Quran is not missing anything (6:38)
  • the Quran is explained in detail (6:114, 12:111, 41:3, 11:1)
  • the Quran is clarification for all things (16:89)
  • the Quran is the best tafsir (explanation) of itself (25:33)

Conclusion

The proofs above should make it extremely clear that not only is the hadith an invalid source of Islamic law, but following and judging by the hadith, according to Quran verse 5:44, makes you a kafir!

… وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
And whoever does not judge by what God has sent down (Arabic: an-zal) (the Quran) – then it is they who are the disbelievers (Arabic: kafirun). (Quran: 5:44)

So Now What?

If you are a Muslim, especially one who was born in a Muslim country and raised as a Muslim, you may be in shock from what you have just read. That is normal. I was in shock myself after discovering this information after years of unbiased study of the Quran and Islam.

Qualifications

You may be wondering what qualifications I have for you to believe what I have written. I don’t have a long beard (by choice). I don’t dress like typical Islamic scholars. I was born and raised in a non-Islamic country (the United States). Instead of studying Islam at a prestigious Islamic university, e.g. Al Azhar, I studied engineering (B.Sc.) and computer science (M.Sc.) at secular universities (University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco State University). My qualifications are simple and they meet God’s requirements, namely, to use reason and study the Word of God (the Quran). The Quran does not require anyone to have a PhD in Islamic studies in order to understand it.

Popular Belief vs Logical Proof

You may think that the majority of Muslims and Islamic scholars who judge by the hadith could not possibly be wrong. Logically, majority belief does not equal correct belief. As stated in verses 21:52-53 and 2:170 above, Abraham’s father and community all believed that statues were god. Though they represented the majority, they were all wrong and Abraham alone was right. The same can be said for Muhammad who, in the beginning, was the only Muslim in his community and despite attacks from the statue-worshipping majority, he persevered. In other words, both Abraham and Muhammad followed proof and reason rather than existing popular belief. 

Cows

You believe the Quran, you consider yourself a rational person, but you may be having a hard time accepting the Quranic statements (a.k.a God’s statements) above. You may be in denial because the clear proofs presented above contradict your long-standing tradition and beliefs. In that case, you may just be lying to yourself. Will you not heed the Quranic proofs which you have read with your own eyes. Or are you, as God puts it in verse 7:179, more astray than cattle?

وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ ۖ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ
And We have certainly created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind. They have hearts with which they do not understand, they have eyes with which they do not see, and they have ears with which they do not hear. They are like cattle; rather, they are more astray. It is they who are the heedless. (7:179)

Of course, you are free to believe whatever you want. But if you choose to disagree with the arguments above, then to quote God Himself …

هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
… Show your proof, if you are truthful! (2:111)

Proof Muslim Women Don’t Have to Cover Their Hair

Many Muslims believe that Muslim women must cover their hair. Following is an in-depth analysis proving that according to the Quran, women do not have to cover their hair.

Hijab

Many Muslims refer to a woman’s head covering as “hijab”. The word “hijab” is never mentioned in the Quran as a head covering. Following are all references to the word “hijab” in the Quran and their meaning.

  • To signify the veil between the companions of the garden (Paradise) and the companions of the fire (Hell) (7:46)
  • The veil of partition between those who do not believe in the hereafter (17:45)
  • The separation / seclusion / screen Mary introduced between herself and her people (19:17)
  • In reference to Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and in relation to the narrative with regards his horses (38:32)
  • To signify the debarring that the transgressors will experience from their Lord on the Day of Judgement (83:15)
  • To signify the separation of the Prophet’s wives (33:53)
  • The claim of the disbelievers to signify the veil between what they believe and what the Prophet is calling them to (41.5)
  • The veil that God uses to speak to mankind (42:51)

The references above are also available at http://corpus.quran.com/qurandictionary.jsp?q=Hjb#(7:46:2)

Verse 24:31

The verse that most Muslims use to claim a requirement for women to cover their hair is verse 24:31.

وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَـٰتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَـٰرِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا ۖ وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِهِنَّ ۖ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ ءَابَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ ءَابَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ إِخْوَٰنِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِىٓ إِخْوَٰنِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِىٓ أَخَوَٰتِهِنَّ أَوْ نِسَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـٰنُهُنَّ أَوِ ٱلتَّـٰبِعِينَ غَيْرِ أُو۟لِى ٱلْإِرْبَةِ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ أَوِ ٱلطِّفْلِ ٱلَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا۟ عَلَىٰ عَوْرَٰتِ ٱلنِّسَآءِ ۖ وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ ۚ وَتُوبُوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their adornment (Arabic: Zeenatahunna) except what is apparent of it (ma zahara minha) and let them draw their head coverings (Arabic: Bi’khumurihinna) over their bosoms / chests (Arabic: Jayubihin) and not to display their adornment (Arabic: Zeenatahunna) except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband’s fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O ye Believers! turn ye all together towards God, that ye may attain Bliss. (24:31)

Let’s analyze this verse by breaking it up into 4 clauses.

And say to the believing women …

  1. to not display their adornment (Arabic: Zeenatahunna زِينَتَهُنَّ)
  2. except what is apparent of it (Arabic: illa ma zahara minha إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا)
  3. and let them draw their head coverings (Arabic: Bi’khumurihinna بِخُمُرِهِنَّ) over their bosoms / chests (Arabic: Juyubihinna جُيُوبِهِ)
  4. and not to display their adornment (Arabic: Zeenatahunna زِينَتَهُنَّ) except to their husbands, their fathers, …

Context

In order to correctly understand this verse, we must understand its context. The context of this verse clearly has to do with a woman’s adornments / beauty which the verse tells women not to display. The Arabic word for “their adornments” is Zeenatahunna (زِينَتَهُنَّ) which is even used twice in this verse. In general, the verse prohibits women from showing off their beauty. The reason for this is likely related to verse 33:59 which tells women to wear an outer garment to avoid being harassed as wearing an outer garment helps hide a woman’s beauty. 

Following is an explanation of key words in the verse.

zeenatahunna (زِينَتَهُنَّ)

The word zeenatahunna comes from the root letters ZAY-YA-NUN. According to the Edward Lanes Lexicon, this word clearly indicates that zeenatahunna is a reference to make-up, beautifying oneself, or adornment to an extent which can become a cause of attraction.

illa ma zahara minha (إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا)

This phrase means “except what is apparent of it” where “it” refers to adornments / beauty (Arabic: zeenah).

bi’khumurihinna (بِخُمُرِهِنَّ)

This word means “with their covering”. The word “khimaar” (pl. khumur) means covering, as indicated in the Edward Lanes Lexicon.

Anything that covers something is a covering. A head covering is one kind of khimaar as it covers the head and this applies to both men and women. For example, in hot climates such as the Middle East, you see men covering their head due to the heat. In the US, people usually just wear a hat if it’s hot outside. In the context of verse 24:31 above, this word means head covering.

Juyubihinna (جُيُوبِهِ)

The word Juyubihinna comes from the root letters JIM-YA-BA. According to the Edward Lanes Lexicon, in the context of the Quran verse 24:31 above it means bosoms or breasts.

Explanation of verse

Now that we understand the key words, we can explain what the verse above is saying.

  1. Clause 1 is telling women to not display their adornments / beauty
  2. Clause 2 exempts adornments / beauty that are naturally apparent, e.g. beautiful face, eyes, etc.
  3. Clause 3 tells women to cover their breasts. This clause comes after clause 2 because it clarifies that breasts, although considered natural beauty, is not part of the exemption in clause 2 above. And although the verse tells women to draw their head coverings over their breasts, that doesn’t mean that women must cover their heads or hair. When this verse was revealed, It’s likely that both men and women covered their hair because Arabia was and still is a naturally very hot place. 
  4. Clause 4 then tells women to not display their adornment / beauty except to certain relatives.

Does this verse require women to cover their hair?

No. Nowhere does this verse even mention the word “hair”. If God really wanted women to cover their hair, He could have simply said “and let them draw their head coverings over their hair and bosoms / chests”, but He didn’t.

Does this verse require women to cover their head?

No. The reference to “head covering” isn’t an instruction to cover the head. Since head coverings must have been commonly worn in Arabia when the verse was revealed, the verse suggests that covering the breasts could be done by drawing a long head covering over the breasts. Of course, nowadays, a shirt would do a much better job at covering one’s breasts than a head covering could ever do.

Head coverings to protect from heat

Some people may argue that head coverings (Arabic: khimaar) used in Arabia when the verse was revealed were not meant to protect people from the heat but rather specifically to hide women’s hair from men in general. This argument seems invalid since verse 16:81 indicates that God created garments one kind of which was to protect people (both men and women) from the heat.

وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلَالًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الْجِبَالِ أَكْنَانًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ سَرَابِيلَ تَقِيكُمُ الْحَرَّ وَسَرَابِيلَ تَقِيكُم بَأْسَكُمْ …
And God has made for you, from that which He has created, shadows and has made for you from the mountains, shelters and has made for you garments which protect you from the heat and garments which protect you from your [enemy in] battle. … (16:81)

The first reference to “garments” in the verse above must refer to head coverings because if it’s hot outside, people all over the world would cover their head. Other types of garments (e.g. shirt, pants, etc), do not protect people from the heat but rather make them feel more hot, unless the protection from heat was to prevent skin cancer, which was probably not the intent of this verse.

Also note that the Arabic word used for “garments” is “sarabeel” which according to the Edward Lanes Lexicon means “anything that is worn” so a head-covering falls into that category.

Head coverings to protect from harassment

Some people may argue that head coverings (Arabic: khimaar) are necessary for women to protect them from being harassed or unwanted sexual advances from men. First of all, there is no verse in the Quran that says a head covering per se is to protect women from being harassed (verse 33:59 mentions outer garments, not head covering, to avoid harassment). Secondly, women are just as attracted to men as men are to women. As such, women can also harass men. This is even proven in Quran verse 12:23 where the wife of prophet Joseph’s master sought to seduce him.

وَرَاوَدَتْهُ الَّتِي هُوَ فِي بَيْتِهَا عَن نَّفْسِهِ وَغَلَّقَتِ الْأَبْوَابَ وَقَالَتْ هَيْتَ لَكَ ۚ قَالَ مَعَاذَ اللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهُ رَبِّي أَحْسَنَ مَثْوَايَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ
And she, in whose house he was, sought to seduce him (prophet Joseph). She closed the doors and said, “Come, you.” He said, “[I seek] the refuge of Allah . Indeed, he is my master, who has made good my residence. Indeed, wrongdoers will not succeed.” (12:23)

In verse 12:32, we see further proof that the wife of prophet Joseph’s master seduced prophet Joseph and even harassed and blackmailed him for refusing her.

قَالَتْ فَذَٰلِكُنَّ الَّذِي لُمْتُنَّنِي فِيهِ ۖ وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدتُّهُ عَن نَّفْسِهِ فَاسْتَعْصَمَ ۖ وَلَئِن لَّمْ يَفْعَلْ مَا آمُرُهُ لَيُسْجَنَنَّ وَلَيَكُونًا مِّنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ
She said, “That is the one about whom you blamed me. And I certainly sought to seduce him, but he firmly refused; and if he will not do what I order him, he will surely be imprisoned and will be of those debased.” (12:32)

It should now be clear from the Quran that sexual attraction and harassment can go both ways. Considering this fact and the argument that women should cover their hair to avoid being harassed by men, then it must follow that men should also cover their hair to avoid being harassed by women. Obviously, there is no such requirement in the Quran and no one would think that men need to cover their hair for this reason. Therefore, the argument that women must cover their hair to avoid being harassed is invalid and not supported by the Quran.

Hair as adornment

Some people will argue that a woman’s hair is an adornment and therefore must not be displayed according to clause 1. This argument is invalid because

  1. The natural beauty of one’s hair is similar to the natural beauty of one’s face and is therefore exempt according to clause 2.
  2. It is unreasonable to consider hair to be in the same category as breasts, especially since men also have hair which can be a cause of attraction for women.
  3. Not all women have beautiful hair. Some women have unattractive hair. For them, covering their hair actually makes them more beautiful. Therefore, we cannot assume that hair is an “adornment” (زينة).

Verse 7:26

As stated in verse 25:33, the Quran is its best tafsir (explanation). Therefore, we should look to other verses in the Quran to explain certain verses rather than make biased assumptions.

In verse 7:26, we read that God created clothes for people (both men and women) to cover their private parts which, if displayed, is a cause of shame. Most people would agree that a woman’s hair is not a cause of shame or a private part the same way their breasts are considered private. Regardless of this, God says that however you choose to cover your body with clothes, what’s most important is that you behave righteously.

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ قَدْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَارِي سَوْآتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ…
O children of Adam, We have bestowed upon you clothing to conceal your private parts and as adornment. But the clothing of righteousness – that is best. … (7:26)

Note that according to the Edward Lanes Lexicon, the definition of سَوْآتِكُمْ is external private parts that are a cause of shame.

http://lexicon.quranic-research.net/data/12_s/240_swO.html#sawoCapN

Also note that according to the Edward Lanes Lexicon, the definition of رِيشًا is clothing that signifies ornament and beauty (adornment).

http://lexicon.quranic-research.net/data/10_r/250_ryX.html#riyXN

Clothing of righteousness

Verse 7:26 above states that the clothing of righteousness is the best type of clothing. So what is righteousness? The answer can be found in Quran verse 2:177 below.

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا ۖ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ
Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives zakah; [those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous. (2:177)

Notice how righteousness from a Quranic point of view has absolutely nothing to do with the type of clothes women wear or how they wear it. Clearly, God considers specific clothing requirements less important than belief in God, His Angels, His Books, His Prophets, sharing wealth, praying, etc. That is probably because verses related to women’s clothing are recommendations for women to reduce unwanted attention and the possibility of being harassed as opposed to strict commandments that determine whether you go to Hell or not.

Hadith argument

Some Muslims will argue that somewhere in the thousands of hadith there is a saying that requires women to cover their hair. Read proof that the hadith cannot be used for Islamic law.

Jewish influence

Orthodox Jews have certain practices such as male circumcision, particular slaughter methods to produce kosher meat, and “sheitel”, which is the requirement for married women to cover their hair. Muslims have very similar practices even though they are not mentioned nor required in the Quran. Unsurprisingly, the Jewish Bible also does not require women to cover their hair. Rather, this Jewish requirement came from Jewish secondary sources (Talmud). This article goes into detail regarding the Jewish practice and origins of covering one’s hair. Based on the similarity between Judaism and Islam and the fact that Judaism came before Islam, it is possible and not unreasonable to believe that some Muslim scholars long ago were influenced by Judaism to adopt these Jewish practices into Islam.

Conclusion

The analysis above should make it clear that women are required to cover their breasts but NOT their hair.

Addendum

Analogy to help understand verse 24:31

Some people will still argue that verse 24:31 still means that women must cover their head or hair because it mentions “head covering”. To help understand why they are wrong, following is an analogy written similar to verse 24:31 with 4 clauses.

And say to the children …

  1. to not leave their toys everywhere when they’re done playing
  2. except certain toys that can’t be easily put away
  3. and let them put away their crayons in their bags
  4. and not to leave their toys in the kitchen, dining room, …

Context

This statement clearly has to do with children and where they put their toys.

Exemption

Some toys are exempt from being put away because maybe they are too big.

Crayons

Crayons, which are considered toys, are not exempt from being put away. Since each child typically has a bag, they can put their crayons in their bags.

Does this statement require children to wear their bags on their backs like a backpack?

No. The word “back” isn’t even mentioned anywhere in the statement.

Does this statement require children to have a bag?

No. The reference to “bag” isn’t an instruction to have a bag. Since children commonly have bags, e.g. lunch bag, backpack, sports bag, etc, the statement suggests that crayons could be put in their bags. Of course, nowadays kids wear pants with pockets. They could just as easily put away their crayons in their pockets. No bag necessary. Furthermore, the context of the statement has to do with putting toys away, not with whether to carry a bag or not.

Conclusion

From this analogy, we see that although the statement suggests kids put away their crayons in their bags, it doesn’t literally nor based on context require kids to have a bag. This is similar to verse 24:31 where God suggests that women cover their breasts with their head coverings to hide their adornments. It doesn’t literally nor based on context require women to cover their hair. 

إثبات أن الحديث ليس شرعاً إسلامياً صالحاً

يعتقد معظم المسلمين بالإضافة إلى القرآن أن الحديث مصدر صحيح للشريعة الإسلامية ، تثبت الحجج أدناه بسهولة إستخدام القرآن والمنطق الأساسي بأن معظم المسلمين ليسوا على خطأ فحسب ، بل أنهم كافرون وفقاً للقرآن لأنهم يحكمون بإستخدام الحديث.

هيا نبدأ 

القضاء فقط من كتاب الله (التوراة ، القرآن)

قبل أن يُنزّل الله تعالى القرآن الكريم على محمد، أنزل الله التوراة على موسى ليحكم بين اليهود. في ذلك الوقت، كان النبيون والأحبار اليهود والربانيون يحكمون بالتوراة. ثبت ذلك في آية 5:44 عندما أخبر الله تعالى الناس بعدم استبدال آياته بشيء آخر، على سبيل المثال، قوانين من صنع الإنسان، ومن لا تحكم بما أنزله الله، على سبيل المثال التوراة والقرآن، فإنه كافر.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

بعد وفاة موسى، في القرن الثاني من الحقبة الحالية قام الأحبار بتأليف كتاب يطلق عليه التلمود يتضمن كلاً من

  • المشناه (التوراة الشفهية / أقوال أو أحاديث مفترضة عن موسى عليه السلام)
    وفقاً للتقليد اليهودي، فإن التوراة الشفهية قد تناقلت شفهياً في سلسلة متصلة من جيل إلى آخر إلى أن تم التعهد بكتابتها. هذا مشابه جداً للحديث النبوي / الأقوال المنقولة عن محمد عليه السلام
  • الجِمارا
    سلسلة من التعليقات التفصيلية والحوارات المتعلقة بالمشناه

في هذه الأيام، يحكم معظم اليهود حسب الكتاب المقدس (التوراة) و التلمود الذي يتضمن أقوال مفترضة عن موسى عليه السلام. هذا مشابه جداً لكيفية حكم التابعين من خلال القرآن الكريم حتى ظهور كتب الأحاديث النبوية (الأحاديث المفترضة عن محمد عليه السلام). في ذلك الوقت، كان الناس يحكمون بالقرآن والحديث.

التسلسل الزمني للأحداث

السنة الحدث
منذ زمن طويل جداً أنزل الله التوراة على موسى عليه السلام
منذ زمن طويل جداً حكم النبيون والأحبار اليهود والربانيون بالتوراة
~ 200 ميلادي كتب الأحبار اليهود التلمود يتضمن أقوال مفترضة عن موسى عليه السلام
~ 200 ميلادي حتى الآن حكم اليهود بكلاً من التوراة والتلمود
609-632 ميلادي أنزل الله القرآن الكريم على محمد عليه السلام
~ 800 ميلادي كتب البخاري الحديث المفترض عن محمد عليه السلام
800 ميلادي حتى الآن يحكم المسلمون بالقرآن الكريم والحديث معاً

الحكم فقط بالقرآن الكريم

بوجه خاص، الآية رقم 45:6 في القرآن الكريم تخبر الناس بأن يحكموا بالقرآن الكريم وليس الحديث. لاحظ أن الكلمة العربية المستخدمة للحديث هي حديث

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ

الآيات القرآنية هي القرآن. وبطبيعة الحال، الحديث ليس آيات من الله. لا يوجد عاقل، بما يشمل تابعين الحديث، قد ينسب الأحاديث إلى الله تعالى.

تنص الآية القرآنية 5:44 بوضوح على أن أي شخص قد يحكم بأي شيء بجانب القرآن الكريم فهو كافر.

… وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

إن ما أنزله الله هو القرآن، وقبل ذلك أنزل التوراة، ويعتبر كلاهما من الكتب المقدسة من الله ولكن لم يُنزّل الله الحديث. لاحظ استخدام كلمة “أنزل” في الآيات التالية تؤكد أن ما أنزله الله القرآن وليس الحديث.c

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَعِيدِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ أَوْ يُحْدِثُ لَهُمْ ذِكْرًا
لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

في الآية 13:37 نقرأ أن الله أنزل “تشريعاً عربياً” الذي يؤكد أن القرآن العربي هو القانون الذي نحكم من خلاله.

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ حُكْمًا عَرَبِيًّا ۚ…

الحديث ليس وحياً

سوف يدّعي بعض تابعين الحديث أنه بالإضافة إلى القرآن، فإن الأحاديث اليومية عن محمد هي أيضاً وحي من الله. والتي يمكن إثبات الخطأ بها بسهولة.

الإثبات 1:

تشير الآية القرآنية 66:1 إلى وضع قد شكك فيه الله محمد بعد أن نهى محمد عن شيء جعله الله شرعاً. إن كان كل ما قاله محمد هو وحي من الله، فلماذا يشكك الله محمد عن شيء قاله محمد؟ منطقياً، لأن ليس كل ما قاله محمد هو وحي من الله.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ ۖ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ …

الإثبات 2:

في الآيات 69: 44-46، هدّد الله بقتل محمد إذا أدلى محمد ببيانات كاذبة عن الله. هذا يثبت أن ليس كل ما قاله محمد هو وحي من الله لأنه لو كان كل شيء كذلك، لما كان يتطلب ذلك أن يحتاج هذا التهديد. إذا كان الله يريد حرفياً أن يقول أن كل كلمة خرجت من فم محمد كانت وحياً من الله، كان بإمكانه أن يقول ذلك دون أي تهديدات.

وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ

الإثبات 3:

يشير حديث صحيح البخاري #1629 أن محمد قد نهى عن أداء الصلاة وقت الفجر وغروب الشمس. هذا تناقض واضح مع القرآن الذي اتفق معه تابعين الحديث.

حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو ضَمْرَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ عُقْبَةَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَنْهَى عَنِ الصَّلاَةِ عِنْدَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَعِنْدَ غُرُوبِهَا‏.‏
https://sunnah.com/bukhari/25/113

جميع المسلمون، حتى أولئك الذين يستخدمون الحديث للشريعة الإسلامية، سيواصلوا أداء صلاتي الفجر والمغرب رغم أن الحديث الصحيح يُحرّم ذلك. في هذه الحالة، قد يقولوا على الرغم من أن الحديث صحيح، إلا أنهم اختاروا تجاهله لأنه يتعارض مع القرآن، لكنهم سيقولون أن الأحاديث الأخرى لا زالت صالحة. بعبارة أخرى، ينتهي بهم الأمر بالاختيار لاتباع بعض الأحاديث ورفض الأخرى. ومن غير المثير للدهشة، أن الآية القرآنية 68: 36-38 تسأل هؤلاء الناس الذين يحكمون بالكتاب (على سبيل المثال كتب الحديث) حيث يأخذون ويختارون القوانين أياً كانت  التي يريدون اتباعها.

مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ

الحقيقة أن تابعين الحديث يعترفوا بأن بعض الأحاديث الصحيحة غير مقبولة ويجب أن تجعلهم يشككوا في صحة الأحاديث الأخرى حتى لو كانت تبدو مقبولة.

حذر النبي محمد باستخدام القرآن فقط

يعتقد بعض تابعين الحديث  بأنهم يقلدون محمد، وأنهم سيستخدمون الحديث لتحذير الناس الآخرين من الشريعة الإسلامية. ومن المفارقات، الآيات القرآنية 50:45 و 6:19 تثبت أن محمد نفسه قام بالتحذير باستخدام القرآن فقط.

… فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ
… وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ …

يتبع النبي محمد القرآن فقط

يعتقد بعض تابعين الحديث  بأنهم يتبعون طريق محمد باتباع الحديث عنه. ومن المفارقات، الآية القرآنية 50:45 تقول أن محمد نفسه يتبع القرآن فقط.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِن تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ

جدال “كيفية الصلاة”

من المحتم أن يخبرك تابعي الحديث أن الحديث ضروري جداً للشريعة الإسلامية لأنه يفسر لك كيفية الصلاة. ما لا يدركه هؤلاء الناس أن. 

  1. لا أحد يتعلم كيفية الصلاة من قراءة الحديث. بدلاً من ذلك، يتعلموا من الناس الآخرين مثل آباءهم.
  2. لا يشرح الحديث كيفية الصلاة بشكل صحيح. باعتبار أن الصلاة شعائر يومية، في الواقع لا يقول الكثير عن كيفية الصلاة، يجعلك تتساءل عن صحة الحديث في العموم.
  3. حتى لوكان الحديث يشرح بوضوح كيفية الصلاة، وبما أن كتب الحديث لم تُكتب حتى 200 سنة بعد وفاة محمد، لذلك لمدة قرنين بعد وفاة محمد، لم يستطع أحد الصلاة لأن كتب الحديث لم تُكتب بعد. من غير المنطقي أن الناس لم يستطيعوا الصلاة لمدة 200 عام لأنهم كانوا ينتظروا أن يكتب البخاري كتاب الحديث.

من المنطقي التصديق بأن الله لم يقدم إرشادات خطوة بخطوة عن كيفية الصلاة في القرآن لأنه منذ البداية كان الله يعلم بأن الناس ستتعلم من خلال اتباع محمد وبعد وفاة محمد، ستتعلم الناس من مجتمعاتها، على سبيل المثال عندما تذهب للصلاة في المسجد يوم الجمعة. في واقع الأمر، معرفة كيفية الصلاة تمر من جيل إلى آخر، وليس من خلال قراءة آلاف الأحاديث لمحاولة فهم الأمر مثل بعض الكلمات المتقاطعة الهائلة.

جدال “التفسير”

سيجادل بعض تابعين الحديث في أن تفسيري للآيات أعلاه أو أي آية أخرى بهذا الخصوص هي غير صحيحة. يبدو أنهم يعتقدون أن تفسيرهم فقط هو التفسير الصحيح. يتناول القرآن التفسير الصحيح للآية 3:7 حيث يذكر الله أن هناك نوعين من الآيات.

1. آيات محددة (واضحة)

هذه الآيات هي أساس القرآن وبما أنها واضحة فإذن التفسير غير ضروري. تعني الآيات ما يقولونه لأن المعنى حرفي.

2. آيات غير محددة (غير واضحة)

هذه الآيات غير واضحة والله فقط يعلم المعنى الصحيح. توجد هذه الآيات الغير واضحة كاختبار للناس الذي يريدون تفسيرها بطريقة معينة لتبرير آرائهم الشخصية ومصالحهم.

هُهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ ۖ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

بما أن الآيات المستخدمة في الجدالات أعلاه واضحة، فإن “التفسير غير الصحيح” هو جدال غير صالح.

جدال “التقاليد”

سيجادل بعض تابعين الحديث بأنه يجب احترام التقاليد الإسلامية وأخدها بعين الاعتبار وبما أن المسلمين تقليدياً سيتبعون الحديث، فيجب على المسلمين الاستمرار في القيام بذلك. هذا الجدال غير صالح لأن ليس كل التقاليد صحيحة والتقاليد ليست أساس للدين. لا يوجد في القرآن ما يقول أنه ينبغي على تابعين الحديث اتباع تقاليد وممارسات أسلافهم. وفي المقابل، يقدم القرآن في الواقع مثال حيث يُظهر بوضوح كيف أن التقاليد لا مكان لها في الدين وهو بالتأكيد ليس بديلاً عن الوصايا الواضحة في القرآن.

في الآيات 21: 52-53 سأل إبراهيم عليه السلام والده وقومه لماذا يعبدون التماثيل. وكان جوابهم أنهم فقط يتبعون تقاليد آباءهم والتي كان من الواضح أنها غير صحيحة.

إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا لَهَا عَابِدِينَ

في الآية 2:170 أُمر والد إبراهيم وقومه باتباع ما أنزله الله لكنهم بدلاً من ذلك أصروا على اتباع تقاليد آباءهم. بعد ذلك، يقول الله أن آباءهم لم يعرفوا شيئاً ولم يكونوا يهتدون.

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۗ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ

جدال ” الزكاة 2.5%”

سيجادل بعض تابعين الحديث أنه بدون الحديث لن يعرف المسلمون أنه يجب عليهم دفع 2.5% من دخلهم لتلبية متطلبات الزكاة التي يعتقدون تماماً أنها تذهب للفقراء والمحتاجين. هناك بعض المسائل التي تتعلق بهذا الجدال.

1. يجب على الجميع دفع الزكاة، ليس المسلمين فقط

بشكل خاطئ، يعتقد تابعين الحديث أنه يجب على المسلمين فقط دفع الزكاة. الآية القرآنية 41:7 تثبت أنه حتى غير المسلمين بمن فيهم المشركين يجب عليهم دفع الزكاة.

وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ

2. يدفع الناس الزكاة قبل مولد محمد بزمن طويل

في الآيات 19:31، 19:55، 2:83، 7:156، 5:12، 21:73، 4:162، و 98:5 نرى دليلاً على أن العديد من مجموعات الناس تدفع الزكاة تعود إلى زمن إبراهيم عليه السلام نفسه. لذلك، لم يكن مبلغ الزكاة يعتمد على شيء يفترض أن محمد قاله، على سبيل المثال الحديث.

ما هي الزكاة؟

نظراً لأن على الجميع دفع الزكاة وزكاة المال وهي غالباً ما تستخدم لمساعدة الفقراء، ولذا سيبدو منطقياً أن الزكاة هي الضرائب الحكومية حيث تُستخدم الإيرادات الضريبية لصالح المجتمع بما يشمل الفقراء. في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية، أكثر من 15% من عائدات الضرائب الفيدرالية تذهب إلى البرامج الاجتماعية لمساعدة الناس المحتاجين للمساعدة المالية. هذا مبلغ أكبر بكثير من 2.5% التي يدّعي تابعين الحديث أنه المبلغ الصحيح الذي يتوجب على المسلمين دفعه لتلبية متطلبات الزكاة. من المفارقات أن الدول الإسلامية التي يفترض أن يدفع الناس 2.5% فقط للزكاة هي من بعض أشد الدول فقراً في العالم. في المقابل، حيث أن يدفع الجميع الزكاة (الضرائب) في الولايات المتحدة، والأشخاص الذين يحتاجون المساعدة المالية يحصلون عليها ويخرجون من الفقر.

الحديث الأفضل

مما لا يثير الدهشة أن الحديث الأفضل هو حديث الله، وهو القرآن، والذي على الأرجح السبب الذي جعل الله يخبر للجميع أن يحكموا بالقرآن فقط وليس شيئاً آخر.

اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُّتَشَابِهًا مَّثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ

أمثلة

فيما يلي بعض الأمثلة التي يتعارض فيها الحديث مع القرآن وقد حكم المسلمون بالحديث بدلاً من القرآن.

صلاة الجمعة

يعتقد العديد من المسلمين أن المرأة ليس مطلوباً منها صلاة الجماعة في يوم الجمعة. ينشأ هذا الاعتقاد من الحديث في https://sunnah.com/abudawud/2/678. ومع ذلك، هذا تعارض مباشر مع آية القرآن 62:9 التي تحث جميع المؤمنين (رجالاً ونساءً) للصلاة معاً يوم الجمعة.

الزكاة 2.5%

يعتقد غالبية المسلمين أنه مطلوب منهم دفع 2.5% من دخلهم لتلبية متطلبات الزكاة. هذا الحد موجود في الحديث ولكن ليس موجوداً في القرآن.

الذهب والحرير

تحريم لبس الذهب والحرير على الرجال المسلمين نبع من الحديث. لا يوجد في القرآن ما يثبت أن الله حرّم هذا.

الموسيقى والغناء

تحريم الاستماع إلى الموسيقى والغناء للمسلمين أتى من الحديث. لا يوجد في القرآن ما يثبت أن الله حرّم هذا.

الحج بدون “محرم”

المقصود بالمِحْرِم هو شخص لا يُسمح له شرعاً بالزواج من امرأة معينة، مثل والد الفتاة أو ابنها أو أخيها أو جدها، إلخ. ومن هذا المنطلق، تعتقد النساء المسلمات أنها لا تستطيع الحج إلا إذا رافقها أحد “المحارم”. ينشأ هذا الاعتقاد من الحديث الذي يقول أنه لا يجوز أن يكون الرجل في رفقة امرأة وحدها وفي عزلة. مع زيارة ملايين الحجاج إلى مكة كل عام ، فإن كونهم في حالة “عزلة” هو عكس ما يحدث بالفعل. هذا الاعتقاد شائع في الثقافات التي يسيطر عليها الذكور كما هو الحال في المملكة العربية السعودية حيث من الواضح أن القاعدة من جانب واحد لأن القيد لا ينطبق على الرجال. ولا حاجة للقول أنه لا يوجد مثل هذا القانون في القرآن يحظر على النساء أداء فريضة الحج بدون “محرم”.

33% الحد الأقصى من تخصيص أصول الوصية

سيجادل بعض العلماء أن أكثر ما يمكنك تخصيصه في وصية ما هو الثلث (33%) لإجمالي الأصول الخاصة بك. هذه القيمة غير موجودة في القرآن. إنها موجودة في الحديث.

الحديث مثل تفسير القرآن

يعتقد بعض المسلمين أن الحديث ضروري لتفسير القرآن. ومع ذلك، هذا تعارض مباشر مع القرآن الذي ينص على

  • القرآن هو الحديث الأفضل (39:23)
  • القرآن كامل (6:115)
  • القرآن لا ينقصه شيء (6:38)
  • القرآن شُرِحَ بالتفصيل (6:114، 12:111، 41:3، 11:1)
  • القرآن توضيح لكل شيء (16:89)
  • القرآن هو التفسير الأفضل (25:33)

الخلاصة

يجب أن تبين الأدلة أعلاه بوضوح أن الحديث ليس مصدر غير صالح للشريعة الإسلامية فقط، ولكن اتباع والحكم بالحديث وفقاً للآية القرآنية 5:44 يجعلك كافر!

… وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

إذن ماذا الآن؟

إذا كنتَ مسلماً، ولا سيما إذا كنت شخصاً ولد في دولة مسلمة وترعرعت كمسلم، قد تكون في حالة صدمة مما قرأته للتو. هذا طبيعي. لقد كنتُ مصدوماً بعد اكتشافي لهذه المعلومات بعد سنوات من الدراسة الغير متحيزة للقرآن والإسلام.

المؤهلات

قد تتساءل عن المؤهلات التي حصلتُ عليها لكي تصدق ما كتبته. ليس لدي لحية طويلة (بمحض إرادتي). لا أرتدي زي العلماء المسلمين العاديين. لقد ولدت وترعرعت في دولة غير إسلامية (الولايات المتحدة). بدلاً من دراسة الإسلام في جامعة إسلامية رفيعة المستوى، على سبيل المثال الأزهر، درستُ الهندسة (درجة البكالوريوس) و علوم الحاسوب (درجة الماجستير) في الجامعات العلمانية (جامعة كاليفورنيا، بيركلي، جامعة ولاية سان فرانسيسكو). إن مؤهلاتي بسيطة وتفي بمتطلبات الله، أي استخدام العقل ودراسة كلمة الله (القرآن). لا يشترط القرآن على أحد بأن يكون حاصلاً على درجة الدكتوراه في الدراسات الإسلامية لفهمه.

الاعتقاد السائد مقابل الدليل المنطقي

قد تعتقد أن غالبية المسلمين والعلماء المسلمين الذين يحكمون بالحديث لا يمكن أن يكونوا مخطئين. منطقياً، لا يساوي اعتقاد الغالبية الاعتقاد الصحيح. كما ذُكر في الآيات 21: 52-53 والآية 2:170 أعلاه، اعتقد والد إبراهيم والمجتمع بأكمله أن التماثيل كانت إلهاً. برغم أنهم كانوا يمثلون الأغلبية إلا أنهم كانوا على خطأ وإبراهيم كان وحده على صواب. يمكن قول نفس الشيء بالنسبة لمحمد الذي كان منذ البداية هو المسلم الوحيد في مجتمعه وعلى الرغم من الهجمات من أغلبية عبدة التماثيل، لكنه تحمّل. بعبارة أخرى، اتبع كلاً من إبراهيم ومحمد الدليل والمنطق بدلاً من المعتقدات السائدة الموجودة.

البقر

أنت تؤمن بالقرآن، وتعتبر نفسك شخصاً عاقلاً، ولكن قد تمر بوقت عصيب في قبول العبارات القرآنية (المعروفة بعبارات الله) أعلاه. قد تكون في حالة إنكار لأن البراهين الواضحة الواردة أعلاه تتعارض مع تقاليدك ومعتقداتك القديمة. في هذه الحالة، قد تكذب على نفسك فقط. لن تهتم للأدلة القرآنية التي قرأتها بأم عينيك أو هل أنت كما قال الله في الآية 7:179 “أضل من الأنعام”؟

وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ ۖ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

بالتأكيد لك كامل الحرية بأن تؤمن بما تشاء. لكن إذا أردت أن تختار عدم الاتفاق مع الجدالات أعلاه. إذاً، كما قال الله في الآية 2:111 أظهر دليلك، إذا كنتَ صادقاً.

هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ