Proof Muslim Women Don’t Have to Cover Their Hair

Many Muslims believe that Muslim women must cover their hair. Following is an in-depth analysis proving that according to the Quran, women do not have to cover their hair.

No pre-1970 hijab requirement in Saudi Arabia

Before we go into analyzing the Quran, it is important to acknowledge that the notion of the hijab being a mandatory garment for women in Saudi Arabia is relatively recent. While Saudi Arabia is widely known for imposing strict hijab requirements, including among tourists, historical video footage from the 1970s reveals that Saudi women were not previously required to wear the hijab. The following video clip was taken from the 2004 PBS Frontline documentary titled The House of Saud at timestamp 37:24. It shows a school teacher and many school girls. Not a single one covered their hair. They weren’t even wearing the long, black cloak (abaya). Instead, they were wearing a regular dress shirt.

This indicates that the mandate for wearing the hijab must have been instituted at some point after the 1970s.

Saudis take great pride in their tradition, and many old traditions are still practiced to this day. For example, Saudi men have been wearing a long, loose-fitting garment known as a thobe for at least a century. They have also been covering their head/hair, not because it’s required by Islamic law, but probably because that’s what you do in scorching hot climates.

Saudi men wearing traditional garb in the early 1900s

If Saudi women traditionally wore the hijab, then surely that tradition would have continued to be practiced by school girls in the 70s. It is therefore inconceivable to believe that wearing the hijab is now an Islamic mandate if it was not practiced nor required in ultra-orthodox and exceptionally traditional Arabia for approximately 1300 years from the time of Prophet Muhammad till the 1970s.


Many Muslims refer to a woman’s head covering as “hijab”. The word “hijab” is never mentioned in the Quran as a head covering. Following are all references to the word “hijab” in the Quran and their meaning.

  • To signify the veil between the companions of the garden (Paradise) and the companions of the fire (Hell) (7:46)
  • The veil of partition between those who do not believe in the hereafter (17:45)
  • The separation / seclusion / screen Mary introduced between herself and her people (19:17)
  • In reference to Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and in relation to the narrative with regards his horses (38:32)
  • To signify the debarring that the transgressors will experience from their Lord on the Day of Judgement (83:15)
  • To signify the separation of the Prophet’s wives (33:53)
  • The claim of the disbelievers to signify the veil between what they believe and what the Prophet is calling them to (41.5)
  • The veil that God uses to speak to mankind (42:51)

The references above are also available at

Verse 24:31

The verse that most Muslims use to claim a requirement for women to cover their hair is verse 24:31.

وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَـٰتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَـٰرِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا ۖ وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِهِنَّ ۖ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ ءَابَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ ءَابَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ إِخْوَٰنِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِىٓ إِخْوَٰنِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِىٓ أَخَوَٰتِهِنَّ أَوْ نِسَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـٰنُهُنَّ أَوِ ٱلتَّـٰبِعِينَ غَيْرِ أُو۟لِى ٱلْإِرْبَةِ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ أَوِ ٱلطِّفْلِ ٱلَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا۟ عَلَىٰ عَوْرَٰتِ ٱلنِّسَآءِ ۖ وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ ۚ وَتُوبُوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their genitals (Arabic: furujahunna); that they should not display their adornment (Arabic: Zeenatahunna) except what is apparent of it (ma zahara minha) and let them draw their head coverings (Arabic: Bi’khumurihinna) over their bosoms / chests (Arabic: Jayubihin) and not to display their adornment (Arabic: Zeenatahunna) except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband’s fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O ye Believers! turn ye all together towards God, that ye may attain Bliss. (24:31)

Let’s analyze this verse by breaking it up into 4 clauses.

And say to the believing women…

  1. to not display their adornment (Arabic: Zeenatahunna زِينَتَهُنَّ)
  2. except what is apparent of it (Arabic: illa ma zahara minha إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا)
  3. and let them draw their head coverings (Arabic: Bi’khumurihinna بِخُمُرِهِنَّ) over their chests (Arabic: Juyubihinna جُيُوبِهِ)
  4. and not to display their adornment (Arabic: Zeenatahunna زِينَتَهُنَّ) except to their husbands, their fathers,…


In order to correctly understand this verse, we must understand its context. The context of this verse clearly has to do with a woman’s adornments / beauty which the verse tells women not to display. The Arabic word for “their adornments” is Zeenatahunna (زِينَتَهُنَّ) which is even used twice in this verse. In general, the verse prohibits women from showing off their beauty. The reason for this is likely related to verse 33:59 which tells women to wear an outer garment to avoid being harassed as wearing an outer garment helps hide a woman’s beauty. 

Following is an explanation of key words in the verse.

zeenatahunna (زِينَتَهُنَّ)

The word zeenatahunna comes from the root letters ZAY-YA-NUN. According to Edward Lane’s lexicon, this word clearly indicates that zeenatahunna is a reference to make-up, beautifying oneself, or adornment to an extent that can become a cause of attraction.


illa ma zahara minha (إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا)

This phrase means “except what is apparent of it” where “it” refers to adornments / beauty (Arabic: zeenah).

bi’khumurihinna (بِخُمُرِهِنَّ)

This word means “with their covering”. The word “khimaar” (pl. khumur) means covering, as indicated in Edward Lane’s lexicon.


Anything that covers something is a covering. A head covering is one kind of khimaar as it covers the head. This applies to both men and women. For example, in hot climates such as in the Middle East, you see men covering their heads due to the heat. In the US, people usually just wear a hat if it’s hot outside. In the context of verse 24:31 above, this word means head covering.

juyubihinna (جُيُوبِهِ)

The word juyubihinna comes from the root letters JIM-YA-BA. According to Edward Lane’s lexicon, in the context of the Quran verse 24:31 above it means bosoms, breasts or chest.


Explanation of verse 24:31

Now that we understand the key words, we can explain what the verse above is saying.

  1. Clause 1 is telling women to not display their adornments / beauty
  2. Clause 2 exempts adornments / beauty that are naturally apparent, e.g. beautiful face, eyes, etc.
  3. Clause 3 tells women to cover their breasts. This clause comes after clause 2 because it clarifies that breasts are not part of the exemption in clause 2 above. And although the verse tells women to draw their head coverings over their breasts, that doesn’t mean that women must cover their heads or hair. When this verse was revealed, it’s likely that both men and women covered their hair because Arabia was and still is a naturally very hot place.
  4. Clause 4 then tells women to not display their adornment / beauty except to certain relatives.

Does this verse require women to cover their hair?

No. Nowhere does this verse even mention the word “hair”. If God really wanted women to cover their hair, He could have simply said “and let them draw their head-coverings over their hair and bosoms / chests”, but He didn’t.

Does this verse require women to cover their head?

No. The reference to “head covering” isn’t an instruction to cover the head. Since head coverings must have been commonly worn in Arabia when the verse was revealed, the verse suggests that covering the breasts could be done by drawing a long head covering over the breasts. Of course, nowadays, a shirt would do a much better job at covering one’s breasts than a head covering could ever do.

Head coverings to protect from heat

Some people may argue that head coverings (Arabic: khimaar) used in Arabia when the verse was revealed were not meant to protect people from the heat but rather specifically to hide women’s hair from men. This argument seems invalid since verse 16:81 indicates that God created garments one kind of which was to protect people (both men and women) from the heat.

وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلَالًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الْجِبَالِ أَكْنَانًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ سَرَابِيلَ تَقِيكُمُ الْحَرَّ وَسَرَابِيلَ تَقِيكُم بَأْسَكُمْ …
And God has made for you, from that which He has created, shadows and has made for you from the mountains, shelters and has made for you garments which protect you from the heat and garments which protect you from your [enemy in] battle. … (16:81)

The first reference to “garments” in the verse above must refer to head coverings because if it’s hot outside, people all over the world would cover their heads. Other types of garments (e.g. shirt, pants, etc), do not protect people from the heat but rather make them feel hotter, unless the protection from the heat was to prevent skin cancer, which was probably not the intent of this verse.

Also, note that the Arabic word used for “garments” is “sarabeel” which according to Edward Lane’s lexicon means “anything that is worn” so a head covering falls into that category.

Head coverings to protect from harassment

Some people may argue that head coverings (Arabic: khimaar) are necessary for women to protect themselves from being harassed or from unwanted sexual advances from men. First of all, there is no verse in the Quran that says a head covering per se is to protect women from being harassed (verse 33:59 mentions outer garments, not head covering, to avoid harassment). Secondly, women are just as attracted to as men are to women. Women can also harass men. This is even proven in Quran verse 12:23 where the wife of prophet Joseph’s master sought to seduce him.

وَرَاوَدَتْهُ الَّتِي هُوَ فِي بَيْتِهَا عَن نَّفْسِهِ وَغَلَّقَتِ الْأَبْوَابَ وَقَالَتْ هَيْتَ لَكَ ۚ قَالَ مَعَاذَ اللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهُ رَبِّي أَحْسَنَ مَثْوَايَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ
And she, in whose house he was, sought to seduce him (prophet Joseph). She closed the doors and said, “Come, you.” He said, “[I seek] the refuge of Allah . Indeed, he is my master, who has made good my residence. Indeed, wrongdoers will not succeed.” (12:23)

In verse 12:32, we see further proof that the wife of prophet Joseph’s master seduced prophet Joseph and even harassed and blackmailed him for refusing her.

قَالَتْ فَذَٰلِكُنَّ الَّذِي لُمْتُنَّنِي فِيهِ ۖ وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدتُّهُ عَن نَّفْسِهِ فَاسْتَعْصَمَ ۖ وَلَئِن لَّمْ يَفْعَلْ مَا آمُرُهُ لَيُسْجَنَنَّ وَلَيَكُونًا مِّنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ
She said, “That is the one about whom you blamed me. And I certainly sought to seduce him, but he firmly refused; and if he will not do what I order him, he will surely be imprisoned and will be of those debased.” (12:32)

In fact, not only did the wife of prophet Joseph’s master seduce, harass, and blackmail prophet Joseph, but she even got violent and ripped his shirt according to verses 12:26-29.

قَالَ هِىَ رَٰوَدَتْنِى عَن نَّفْسِى ۚ وَشَهِدَ شَاهِدٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِهَآ إِن كَانَ قَمِيصُهُۥ قُدَّ مِن قُبُلٍ فَصَدَقَتْ وَهُوَ مِنَ ٱلْكَـٰذِبِينَ وَإِن كَانَ قَمِيصُهُۥ قُدَّ مِن دُبُرٍ فَكَذَبَتْ وَهُوَ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰدِقِينَ يُوسُفُ أَعْرِضْ عَنْ هَـٰذَا ۚ وَٱسْتَغْفِرِى لِذَنۢبِكِ ۖ إِنَّكِ كُنتِ مِنَ ٱلْخَاطِـِٔينَ ۞ وَقَالَ نِسْوَةٌ فِى ٱلْمَدِينَةِ ٱمْرَأَتُ ٱلْعَزِيزِ تُرَٰوِدُ فَتَىٰهَا عَن نَّفْسِهِۦ ۖ قَدْ شَغَفَهَا حُبًّا ۖ إِنَّا لَنَرَىٰهَا فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ مُّبِينٍ
[Joseph] said, “It was she who sought to seduce me.” And a witness from her family testified, “If his shirt is torn from the front, then she has told the truth, and he is of the liars. But if his shirt is torn from the back, then she has lied, and he is of the truthful.” So when he [i.e., her husband] saw his shirt torn from the back, he said, “Indeed, it is of your [i.e., women’s] plan. Indeed, your plan is great [i.e., vehement]. And women in the city said, “The wife of al-ʿAzeez is seeking to seduce her slave boy; he has impassioned her with love. Indeed, we see her [to be] in clear error.” (12:26-29)

It should now be clear from the Quran that sexual attraction and harassment can go both ways. Considering this fact and the argument that women should cover their hair to avoid being harassed by men, then it must follow that men should also cover their hair to avoid being harassed by women. Obviously, there is no such requirement in the Quran and no one would think that men would need to cover their hair for this reason. Therefore, the argument that women must cover their hair to avoid being harassed is invalid and not supported by the Quran.

Hair as adornment

Some people will argue that a woman’s hair is an adornment and therefore must not be displayed according to clause 1. This argument is invalid because

  1. The natural beauty of one’s hair is similar to the natural beauty of one’s face and is therefore exempt according to clause 2.
  2. It is unreasonable to consider hair to be in the same category as breasts, especially since men also have hair which can be a cause of attraction for women.
  3. Not all women have beautiful hair. Some women have unattractive hair. For them, covering their hair actually makes them more beautiful. Therefore, we cannot assume that hair is an “adornment” (زينة).

Hair as aurah

Many Muslims will make the baseless argument that a woman’s hair, but not a man’s hair, is their “aurah”, and therefore it should be covered.

In verse 7:26, we read that God created clothes for people (both men and women) to cover their private parts / genitalia which, if displayed, is a cause of shame. Most people would agree that a woman’s hair is 1) not genitalia, 2) not a cause of shame or a private part the same way their breasts are considered private. Regardless of this, God says that however you choose to cover your body with clothes, what’s most important is that you behave righteously.

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ قَدْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَارِي سَوْآتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ…
O children of Adam, We have bestowed upon you clothing to conceal your private parts / genitalia (Arabic: saw-ah) and as adornment (Arabic: reesha). But the clothing of righteousness – that is best. … (7:26)

Note that according to Edward Lane’s lexicon, the definition of سَوْآتِكُمْ is

  • aurah (عَوْرَة)
  • “pudendam” (genitalia)
  • “external portion of the organs of generation” (reproductive parts)
  • “the anus”
  • parts that, if exposed, are a cause of “shame”

Notice in the screenshot above I highlighted the word “au-rah” (عَوْرَة). It is a synonym for “saw-ah” (سَوْءَةٌ).

You may be wondering why God would need to tell people that He created clothes so people can cover their private parts and that women should, by the way, also cover their chests. This purpose of clothing may seem obvious to most but keep in mind that even today, there are still tribes in many places around the world of people wearing nothing or barely anything. For example, the people of Koma in the Northern part of Adamawa State in Nigeria are of the belief that if women wear clothes, they would incur the wrath of the gods which may lead to their death or barrenness. This belief is just as nonsensical as the belief that women’s hair, but not men’s hair, is among their private parts.

Nigeria’s Koma tribe, whose women don’t wear clothes for fear of death

Clothing of righteousness

Verse 7:26 above states that the clothing of righteousness is the best type of clothing. So what is righteousness? The answer can be found in Quran verse 2:177 below.

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا ۖ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ
Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives zakah; [those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous. (2:177)

Notice how righteousness from a Quranic point of view has absolutely nothing to do with the type of clothes women wear or how they wear them. Clearly, God considers specific clothing requirements less important than belief in God, His Angels, His Books, His Prophets, sharing wealth, praying, etc. That is probably because verses related to women’s clothing are recommendations for women to reduce unwanted attention and the possibility of being harassed as opposed to strict commandments that determine whether you go to Hell or not.

Head covering for Muslim identity

Some women will comment that wearing the hijab is necessary or encouraged to support their identity as a Muslim. First of all, there is no such thing as Islamic clothing from a Quranic point of view. What people call Islamic clothing is nothing more than traditional garb that is commonly worn in Islamic countries. There is no verse in the Quran that says Muslim women need to identify themselves by wearing a hijab. Furthermore, wearing a hijab most definitely doesn’t increase your chances of being allowed into Heaven. Consider, for example, the following people mentioned in the Quran. Their identity as being married to or descendants of prophets may make you think that they must be righteous when in fact they are the opposite.

  • Most of prophet Abraham and prophet Noah’s descendants were unrighteous. (57:26, 37:113, 2:124)
  • The wives of prophet Noah and prophet Lot, despite living with them, were unrighteous. (66:10)
  • Prophet Noah’s son was of evil conduct. (11:46)
  • Prophet Jacob’s sons tried to kill their brother, Joseph. (11:1-18)

Now, considering how evil Pharaoh was, you’re probably thinking his wife must have also been evil. Interestingly, and surprisingly, Pharaoh’s wife was actually righteous despite being married to one of the worse evildoers of all time. (66:11)

Similarly, one’s identity as a Muslim woman by wearing the hijab has nothing to do with righteousness from an Islamic point of view. This is no different than men who think they should have a long beard to identify themselves as religious Muslims. If having a long beard actually somehow made you more righteous than people without one, then what are men supposed to do who naturally don’t have any facial hair? Get a hair transplant?

Head covering for modesty

Some Muslim women will argue that they wear the hijab to be modest. There is no Quranic commandment to dress modestly or to behave modestly, although being modest and not arrogant is in line with the spirit of the Quran. If we look at the first part of verse 24:31, we find a few English translations where the translator (Pickthall and Yusuf Ali) incorrectly translated the meaning by replacing “genitals” with “modesty”. All other translators correctly used the term “genitals”.

وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَـٰتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَـٰرِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ …
Correct translation
And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their genitals (Arabic: furuujahunna)… (24:31)
Pickthall translation
And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest… (24:31)
Yusuf Ali translation
And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty … (24:31)

If you are in doubt about the true meaning of the Arabic word فُرُوجَهُنَّ (furuujahunna), then you can verify the correct meaning in Edward Lane’s lexicon (screenshot below).


To say that the meaning of فُرُوجَهُنَّ (furuujahunna) is “modesty” does injustice to the Quran and spreads confusion among innocent Muslims who mistakenly think that they can trust the accuracy of all translations.

Logically, covering one’s hair doesn’t automatically make someone modest. For example, one could wear a fancy hijab with various embellishments such as diamonds (fake or not) and gold patterns like the one pictured below. That hardly looks modest. In fact, it looks the opposite of modest. Of course, Muslim women don’t dress like that every day, but many do to varying degrees on special occasions.

Now, let’s say that one wears a plain hijab instead of a fancy one. But, they also wear make-up to embellish and prettify their face, which is actually very common. If the point of wearing the hijab is to make themselves appear modest, then they’ve negated that effort by spending probably a considerable amount of time wearing make-up, e.g. in the example picture below. Note that wearing make-up is an adornment (zeenah) which, according to the first clause of verse 24:31, is forbidden.

If one is concerned about modesty, they should focus on having a modest behavior and attitude, e.g. refusing to take credit for a big achievement, rather than incorrectly believing that covering their hair will suddenly make themselves and everyone around them think that they are modest.

If one is concerned about whether they are allowed to dress attractively, then keep in mind that according to Quran verse 7:26 (see above), God actually encourages people to dress attractively because He literally created clothes for two purposes:

  1. to cover genitalia
  2. as an adornment / beauty (Arabic: رِيشًا ree-sha)

According to Edward Lane’s lexicon, the definition of رِيشًا is clothing that signifies ornament and beauty (adornment).


If God created clothing so humans can look good in them, intentionally refusing to wear beautiful clothing is akin to not appreciating God’s creation. Consider Quran chapter 55 which mentions numerous creations of God followed by the question

So which of the favors of your Lord would you deny?

As if to drill it in your brain, that question was repeated 31 times, most likely to emphasize that the good things that God created for humans should be appreciated, not denied!

Hadith argument

Some Muslims will argue that somewhere in the thousands of hadith there is a saying that requires women to cover their hair. Read proof that the hadith cannot be used as Islamic law.

Jewish influence

Orthodox Jews have certain practices such as male circumcision, particular slaughter methods to produce kosher meat, and “sheitel”, which is the requirement for married women to cover their hair. Muslims have very similar practices even though they are not mentioned nor required in the Quran. Unsurprisingly, the Jewish Bible / Torah also does not require women to cover their hair. Rather, this Jewish requirement came from Jewish secondary sources (Talmud). Note that the Jewish Bible / Torah is like the Quran whereas the Jewish Talmud is like the hadith.

This article goes into detail regarding the Jewish practice and origins of covering one’s hair.

Based on the similarity between Judaism and Islam and the fact that Judaism came before Islam, it is possible and not unreasonable to believe that some Muslim scholars long ago were influenced by Judaism to adopt these Jewish practices into Islam.


The analysis above should make it clear that women are required to cover their breasts but NOT their hair.


Analogy to help understand verse 24:31

Some people will still argue that verse 24:31 still means that women must cover their head or hair because it mentions “head covering”. To help understand why they are wrong, the following is an analogy written similar to verse 24:31 with 4 clauses.

And say to the children …

  1. to not leave their toys everywhere when they’re done playing
  2. except certain toys that can’t be easily put away
  3. and let them put away their crayons in their bags
  4. and not to leave their toys in the kitchen, dining room, …


This statement clearly has to do with children and where they put their toys.


Some toys are exempt from being put away because maybe they are too big.


Crayons, which are considered toys, are not exempt from being put away. Since each child typically has a bag, they can put their crayons in their bags.

Does this statement require children to wear their bags on their backs like a backpack?

No. The word “back” isn’t even mentioned anywhere in the statement.

Does this statement require children to have a bag?

No. The reference to “bag” isn’t an instruction to have a bag. Since children commonly have bags, e.g. lunch bags, backpacks, sports bags, etc, the statement suggests that crayons could be put in their bags. Of course, nowadays kids wear pants with pockets. They could just as easily put away their crayons in their pockets. No bag necessary. Furthermore, the context of the statement has to do with putting toys away, not with whether to carry a bag or not.


From this analogy, we see that although the statement suggests kids put away their crayons in their bags, it doesn’t literally nor based on context require kids to have a bag. This is similar to verse 24:31 where God suggests that women cover their breasts with their head coverings to hide their adornments. It doesn’t literally nor based on context require women to cover their hair. 

Related articles

إثبات أن الحديث ليس شرعاً إسلامياً صالحاً

يعتقد معظم المسلمين بالإضافة إلى القرآن أن الحديث مصدر صحيح للشريعة الإسلامية ، تثبت الحجج أدناه بسهولة إستخدام القرآن والمنطق الأساسي بأن معظم المسلمين ليسوا على خطأ فحسب ، بل أنهم كافرون وفقاً للقرآن لأنهم يحكمون بإستخدام الحديث.

هيا نبدأ 

القضاء فقط من كتاب الله (التوراة ، القرآن)

قبل أن يُنزّل الله تعالى القرآن الكريم على محمد، أنزل الله التوراة على موسى ليحكم بين اليهود. في ذلك الوقت، كان النبيون والأحبار اليهود والربانيون يحكمون بالتوراة. ثبت ذلك في آية 5:44 عندما أخبر الله تعالى الناس بعدم استبدال آياته بشيء آخر، على سبيل المثال، قوانين من صنع الإنسان، ومن لا تحكم بما أنزله الله، على سبيل المثال التوراة والقرآن، فإنه كافر.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

بعد وفاة موسى، في القرن الثاني من الحقبة الحالية قام الأحبار بتأليف كتاب يطلق عليه التلمود يتضمن كلاً من

  • المشناه (التوراة الشفهية / أقوال أو أحاديث مفترضة عن موسى عليه السلام)
    وفقاً للتقليد اليهودي، فإن التوراة الشفهية قد تناقلت شفهياً في سلسلة متصلة من جيل إلى آخر إلى أن تم التعهد بكتابتها. هذا مشابه جداً للحديث النبوي / الأقوال المنقولة عن محمد عليه السلام
  • الجِمارا
    سلسلة من التعليقات التفصيلية والحوارات المتعلقة بالمشناه

في هذه الأيام، يحكم معظم اليهود حسب الكتاب المقدس (التوراة) و التلمود الذي يتضمن أقوال مفترضة عن موسى عليه السلام. هذا مشابه جداً لكيفية حكم التابعين من خلال القرآن الكريم حتى ظهور كتب الأحاديث النبوية (الأحاديث المفترضة عن محمد عليه السلام). في ذلك الوقت، كان الناس يحكمون بالقرآن والحديث.

التسلسل الزمني للأحداث

السنة الحدث
منذ زمن طويل جداً أنزل الله التوراة على موسى عليه السلام
منذ زمن طويل جداً حكم النبيون والأحبار اليهود والربانيون بالتوراة
~ 200 ميلادي كتب الأحبار اليهود التلمود يتضمن أقوال مفترضة عن موسى عليه السلام
~ 200 ميلادي حتى الآن حكم اليهود بكلاً من التوراة والتلمود
609-632 ميلادي أنزل الله القرآن الكريم على محمد عليه السلام
~ 800 ميلادي كتب البخاري الحديث المفترض عن محمد عليه السلام
800 ميلادي حتى الآن يحكم المسلمون بالقرآن الكريم والحديث معاً

الحكم فقط بالقرآن الكريم

بوجه خاص، الآية رقم 45:6 في القرآن الكريم تخبر الناس بأن يحكموا بالقرآن الكريم وليس الحديث. لاحظ أن الكلمة العربية المستخدمة للحديث هي حديث

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ

الآيات القرآنية هي القرآن. وبطبيعة الحال، الحديث ليس آيات من الله. لا يوجد عاقل، بما يشمل تابعين الحديث، قد ينسب الأحاديث إلى الله تعالى.

تنص الآية القرآنية 5:44 بوضوح على أن أي شخص قد يحكم بأي شيء بجانب القرآن الكريم فهو كافر.

… وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

إن ما أنزله الله هو القرآن، وقبل ذلك أنزل التوراة، ويعتبر كلاهما من الكتب المقدسة من الله ولكن لم يُنزّل الله الحديث. لاحظ استخدام كلمة “أنزل” في الآيات التالية تؤكد أن ما أنزله الله القرآن وليس الحديث.c

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَعِيدِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ أَوْ يُحْدِثُ لَهُمْ ذِكْرًا
لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

في الآية 13:37 نقرأ أن الله أنزل “تشريعاً عربياً” الذي يؤكد أن القرآن العربي هو القانون الذي نحكم من خلاله.

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ حُكْمًا عَرَبِيًّا ۚ…

الحديث ليس وحياً

سوف يدّعي بعض تابعين الحديث أنه بالإضافة إلى القرآن، فإن الأحاديث اليومية عن محمد هي أيضاً وحي من الله. والتي يمكن إثبات الخطأ بها بسهولة.

الإثبات 1:

تشير الآية القرآنية 66:1 إلى وضع قد شكك فيه الله محمد بعد أن نهى محمد عن شيء جعله الله شرعاً. إن كان كل ما قاله محمد هو وحي من الله، فلماذا يشكك الله محمد عن شيء قاله محمد؟ منطقياً، لأن ليس كل ما قاله محمد هو وحي من الله.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ ۖ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ …

الإثبات 2:

في الآيات 69: 44-46، هدّد الله بقتل محمد إذا أدلى محمد ببيانات كاذبة عن الله. هذا يثبت أن ليس كل ما قاله محمد هو وحي من الله لأنه لو كان كل شيء كذلك، لما كان يتطلب ذلك أن يحتاج هذا التهديد. إذا كان الله يريد حرفياً أن يقول أن كل كلمة خرجت من فم محمد كانت وحياً من الله، كان بإمكانه أن يقول ذلك دون أي تهديدات.

وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ

الإثبات 3:

يشير حديث صحيح البخاري #1629 أن محمد قد نهى عن أداء الصلاة وقت الفجر وغروب الشمس. هذا تناقض واضح مع القرآن الذي اتفق معه تابعين الحديث.

حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو ضَمْرَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ عُقْبَةَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَنْهَى عَنِ الصَّلاَةِ عِنْدَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَعِنْدَ غُرُوبِهَا‏.‏

جميع المسلمون، حتى أولئك الذين يستخدمون الحديث للشريعة الإسلامية، سيواصلوا أداء صلاتي الفجر والمغرب رغم أن الحديث الصحيح يُحرّم ذلك. في هذه الحالة، قد يقولوا على الرغم من أن الحديث صحيح، إلا أنهم اختاروا تجاهله لأنه يتعارض مع القرآن، لكنهم سيقولون أن الأحاديث الأخرى لا زالت صالحة. بعبارة أخرى، ينتهي بهم الأمر بالاختيار لاتباع بعض الأحاديث ورفض الأخرى. ومن غير المثير للدهشة، أن الآية القرآنية 68: 36-38 تسأل هؤلاء الناس الذين يحكمون بالكتاب (على سبيل المثال كتب الحديث) حيث يأخذون ويختارون القوانين أياً كانت  التي يريدون اتباعها.

مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ

الحقيقة أن تابعين الحديث يعترفوا بأن بعض الأحاديث الصحيحة غير مقبولة ويجب أن تجعلهم يشككوا في صحة الأحاديث الأخرى حتى لو كانت تبدو مقبولة.

حذر النبي محمد باستخدام القرآن فقط

يعتقد بعض تابعين الحديث  بأنهم يقلدون محمد، وأنهم سيستخدمون الحديث لتحذير الناس الآخرين من الشريعة الإسلامية. ومن المفارقات، الآيات القرآنية 50:45 و 6:19 تثبت أن محمد نفسه قام بالتحذير باستخدام القرآن فقط.

… فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ
… وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ …

يتبع النبي محمد القرآن فقط

يعتقد بعض تابعين الحديث  بأنهم يتبعون طريق محمد باتباع الحديث عنه. ومن المفارقات، الآية القرآنية 50:45 تقول أن محمد نفسه يتبع القرآن فقط.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِن تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ

جدال “كيفية الصلاة”

من المحتم أن يخبرك تابعي الحديث أن الحديث ضروري جداً للشريعة الإسلامية لأنه يفسر لك كيفية الصلاة. ما لا يدركه هؤلاء الناس أن. 

  1. لا أحد يتعلم كيفية الصلاة من قراءة الحديث. بدلاً من ذلك، يتعلموا من الناس الآخرين مثل آباءهم.
  2. لا يشرح الحديث كيفية الصلاة بشكل صحيح. باعتبار أن الصلاة شعائر يومية، في الواقع لا يقول الكثير عن كيفية الصلاة، يجعلك تتساءل عن صحة الحديث في العموم.
  3. حتى لوكان الحديث يشرح بوضوح كيفية الصلاة، وبما أن كتب الحديث لم تُكتب حتى 200 سنة بعد وفاة محمد، لذلك لمدة قرنين بعد وفاة محمد، لم يستطع أحد الصلاة لأن كتب الحديث لم تُكتب بعد. من غير المنطقي أن الناس لم يستطيعوا الصلاة لمدة 200 عام لأنهم كانوا ينتظروا أن يكتب البخاري كتاب الحديث.

من المنطقي التصديق بأن الله لم يقدم إرشادات خطوة بخطوة عن كيفية الصلاة في القرآن لأنه منذ البداية كان الله يعلم بأن الناس ستتعلم من خلال اتباع محمد وبعد وفاة محمد، ستتعلم الناس من مجتمعاتها، على سبيل المثال عندما تذهب للصلاة في المسجد يوم الجمعة. في واقع الأمر، معرفة كيفية الصلاة تمر من جيل إلى آخر، وليس من خلال قراءة آلاف الأحاديث لمحاولة فهم الأمر مثل بعض الكلمات المتقاطعة الهائلة.

جدال “التفسير”

سيجادل بعض تابعين الحديث في أن تفسيري للآيات أعلاه أو أي آية أخرى بهذا الخصوص هي غير صحيحة. يبدو أنهم يعتقدون أن تفسيرهم فقط هو التفسير الصحيح. يتناول القرآن التفسير الصحيح للآية 3:7 حيث يذكر الله أن هناك نوعين من الآيات.

1. آيات محددة (واضحة)

هذه الآيات هي أساس القرآن وبما أنها واضحة فإذن التفسير غير ضروري. تعني الآيات ما يقولونه لأن المعنى حرفي.

2. آيات غير محددة (غير واضحة)

هذه الآيات غير واضحة والله فقط يعلم المعنى الصحيح. توجد هذه الآيات الغير واضحة كاختبار للناس الذي يريدون تفسيرها بطريقة معينة لتبرير آرائهم الشخصية ومصالحهم.

هُهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ ۖ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

بما أن الآيات المستخدمة في الجدالات أعلاه واضحة، فإن “التفسير غير الصحيح” هو جدال غير صالح.

جدال “التقاليد”

سيجادل بعض تابعين الحديث بأنه يجب احترام التقاليد الإسلامية وأخدها بعين الاعتبار وبما أن المسلمين تقليدياً سيتبعون الحديث، فيجب على المسلمين الاستمرار في القيام بذلك. هذا الجدال غير صالح لأن ليس كل التقاليد صحيحة والتقاليد ليست أساس للدين. لا يوجد في القرآن ما يقول أنه ينبغي على تابعين الحديث اتباع تقاليد وممارسات أسلافهم. وفي المقابل، يقدم القرآن في الواقع مثال حيث يُظهر بوضوح كيف أن التقاليد لا مكان لها في الدين وهو بالتأكيد ليس بديلاً عن الوصايا الواضحة في القرآن.

في الآيات 21: 52-53 سأل إبراهيم عليه السلام والده وقومه لماذا يعبدون التماثيل. وكان جوابهم أنهم فقط يتبعون تقاليد آباءهم والتي كان من الواضح أنها غير صحيحة.

إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا لَهَا عَابِدِينَ

في الآية 2:170 أُمر والد إبراهيم وقومه باتباع ما أنزله الله لكنهم بدلاً من ذلك أصروا على اتباع تقاليد آباءهم. بعد ذلك، يقول الله أن آباءهم لم يعرفوا شيئاً ولم يكونوا يهتدون.

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۗ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ

جدال ” الزكاة 2.5%”

سيجادل بعض تابعين الحديث أنه بدون الحديث لن يعرف المسلمون أنه يجب عليهم دفع 2.5% من دخلهم لتلبية متطلبات الزكاة التي يعتقدون تماماً أنها تذهب للفقراء والمحتاجين. هناك بعض المسائل التي تتعلق بهذا الجدال.

1. يجب على الجميع دفع الزكاة، ليس المسلمين فقط

بشكل خاطئ، يعتقد تابعين الحديث أنه يجب على المسلمين فقط دفع الزكاة. الآية القرآنية 41:7 تثبت أنه حتى غير المسلمين بمن فيهم المشركين يجب عليهم دفع الزكاة.

وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ

2. يدفع الناس الزكاة قبل مولد محمد بزمن طويل

في الآيات 19:31، 19:55، 2:83، 7:156، 5:12، 21:73، 4:162، و 98:5 نرى دليلاً على أن العديد من مجموعات الناس تدفع الزكاة تعود إلى زمن إبراهيم عليه السلام نفسه. لذلك، لم يكن مبلغ الزكاة يعتمد على شيء يفترض أن محمد قاله، على سبيل المثال الحديث.

ما هي الزكاة؟

نظراً لأن على الجميع دفع الزكاة وزكاة المال وهي غالباً ما تستخدم لمساعدة الفقراء، ولذا سيبدو منطقياً أن الزكاة هي الضرائب الحكومية حيث تُستخدم الإيرادات الضريبية لصالح المجتمع بما يشمل الفقراء. في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية، أكثر من 15% من عائدات الضرائب الفيدرالية تذهب إلى البرامج الاجتماعية لمساعدة الناس المحتاجين للمساعدة المالية. هذا مبلغ أكبر بكثير من 2.5% التي يدّعي تابعين الحديث أنه المبلغ الصحيح الذي يتوجب على المسلمين دفعه لتلبية متطلبات الزكاة. من المفارقات أن الدول الإسلامية التي يفترض أن يدفع الناس 2.5% فقط للزكاة هي من بعض أشد الدول فقراً في العالم. في المقابل، حيث أن يدفع الجميع الزكاة (الضرائب) في الولايات المتحدة، والأشخاص الذين يحتاجون المساعدة المالية يحصلون عليها ويخرجون من الفقر.

الحديث الأفضل

مما لا يثير الدهشة أن الحديث الأفضل هو حديث الله، وهو القرآن، والذي على الأرجح السبب الذي جعل الله يخبر للجميع أن يحكموا بالقرآن فقط وليس شيئاً آخر.

اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُّتَشَابِهًا مَّثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ


فيما يلي بعض الأمثلة التي يتعارض فيها الحديث مع القرآن وقد حكم المسلمون بالحديث بدلاً من القرآن.

صلاة الجمعة

يعتقد العديد من المسلمين أن المرأة ليس مطلوباً منها صلاة الجماعة في يوم الجمعة. ينشأ هذا الاعتقاد من الحديث في ومع ذلك، هذا تعارض مباشر مع آية القرآن 62:9 التي تحث جميع المؤمنين (رجالاً ونساءً) للصلاة معاً يوم الجمعة.

الزكاة 2.5%

يعتقد غالبية المسلمين أنه مطلوب منهم دفع 2.5% من دخلهم لتلبية متطلبات الزكاة. هذا الحد موجود في الحديث ولكن ليس موجوداً في القرآن.

الذهب والحرير

تحريم لبس الذهب والحرير على الرجال المسلمين نبع من الحديث. لا يوجد في القرآن ما يثبت أن الله حرّم هذا.

الموسيقى والغناء

تحريم الاستماع إلى الموسيقى والغناء للمسلمين أتى من الحديث. لا يوجد في القرآن ما يثبت أن الله حرّم هذا.

الحج بدون “محرم”

المقصود بالمِحْرِم هو شخص لا يُسمح له شرعاً بالزواج من امرأة معينة، مثل والد الفتاة أو ابنها أو أخيها أو جدها، إلخ. ومن هذا المنطلق، تعتقد النساء المسلمات أنها لا تستطيع الحج إلا إذا رافقها أحد “المحارم”. ينشأ هذا الاعتقاد من الحديث الذي يقول أنه لا يجوز أن يكون الرجل في رفقة امرأة وحدها وفي عزلة. مع زيارة ملايين الحجاج إلى مكة كل عام ، فإن كونهم في حالة “عزلة” هو عكس ما يحدث بالفعل. هذا الاعتقاد شائع في الثقافات التي يسيطر عليها الذكور كما هو الحال في المملكة العربية السعودية حيث من الواضح أن القاعدة من جانب واحد لأن القيد لا ينطبق على الرجال. ولا حاجة للقول أنه لا يوجد مثل هذا القانون في القرآن يحظر على النساء أداء فريضة الحج بدون “محرم”.

33% الحد الأقصى من تخصيص أصول الوصية

سيجادل بعض العلماء أن أكثر ما يمكنك تخصيصه في وصية ما هو الثلث (33%) لإجمالي الأصول الخاصة بك. هذه القيمة غير موجودة في القرآن. إنها موجودة في الحديث.

الحديث مثل تفسير القرآن

يعتقد بعض المسلمين أن الحديث ضروري لتفسير القرآن. ومع ذلك، هذا تعارض مباشر مع القرآن الذي ينص على

  • القرآن هو الحديث الأفضل (39:23)
  • القرآن كامل (6:115)
  • القرآن لا ينقصه شيء (6:38)
  • القرآن شُرِحَ بالتفصيل (6:114، 12:111، 41:3، 11:1)
  • القرآن توضيح لكل شيء (16:89)
  • القرآن هو التفسير الأفضل (25:33)


يجب أن تبين الأدلة أعلاه بوضوح أن الحديث ليس مصدر غير صالح للشريعة الإسلامية فقط، ولكن اتباع والحكم بالحديث وفقاً للآية القرآنية 5:44 يجعلك كافر!

… وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

إذن ماذا الآن؟

إذا كنتَ مسلماً، ولا سيما إذا كنت شخصاً ولد في دولة مسلمة وترعرعت كمسلم، قد تكون في حالة صدمة مما قرأته للتو. هذا طبيعي. لقد كنتُ مصدوماً بعد اكتشافي لهذه المعلومات بعد سنوات من الدراسة الغير متحيزة للقرآن والإسلام.


قد تتساءل عن المؤهلات التي حصلتُ عليها لكي تصدق ما كتبته. ليس لدي لحية طويلة (بمحض إرادتي). لا أرتدي زي العلماء المسلمين العاديين. لقد ولدت وترعرعت في دولة غير إسلامية (الولايات المتحدة). بدلاً من دراسة الإسلام في جامعة إسلامية رفيعة المستوى، على سبيل المثال الأزهر، درستُ الهندسة (درجة البكالوريوس) و علوم الحاسوب (درجة الماجستير) في الجامعات العلمانية (جامعة كاليفورنيا، بيركلي، جامعة ولاية سان فرانسيسكو). إن مؤهلاتي بسيطة وتفي بمتطلبات الله، أي استخدام العقل ودراسة كلمة الله (القرآن). لا يشترط القرآن على أحد بأن يكون حاصلاً على درجة الدكتوراه في الدراسات الإسلامية لفهمه.

الاعتقاد السائد مقابل الدليل المنطقي

قد تعتقد أن غالبية المسلمين والعلماء المسلمين الذين يحكمون بالحديث لا يمكن أن يكونوا مخطئين. منطقياً، لا يساوي اعتقاد الغالبية الاعتقاد الصحيح. كما ذُكر في الآيات 21: 52-53 والآية 2:170 أعلاه، اعتقد والد إبراهيم والمجتمع بأكمله أن التماثيل كانت إلهاً. برغم أنهم كانوا يمثلون الأغلبية إلا أنهم كانوا على خطأ وإبراهيم كان وحده على صواب. يمكن قول نفس الشيء بالنسبة لمحمد الذي كان منذ البداية هو المسلم الوحيد في مجتمعه وعلى الرغم من الهجمات من أغلبية عبدة التماثيل، لكنه تحمّل. بعبارة أخرى، اتبع كلاً من إبراهيم ومحمد الدليل والمنطق بدلاً من المعتقدات السائدة الموجودة.


أنت تؤمن بالقرآن، وتعتبر نفسك شخصاً عاقلاً، ولكن قد تمر بوقت عصيب في قبول العبارات القرآنية (المعروفة بعبارات الله) أعلاه. قد تكون في حالة إنكار لأن البراهين الواضحة الواردة أعلاه تتعارض مع تقاليدك ومعتقداتك القديمة. في هذه الحالة، قد تكذب على نفسك فقط. لن تهتم للأدلة القرآنية التي قرأتها بأم عينيك أو هل أنت كما قال الله في الآية 7:179 “أضل من الأنعام”؟

وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ ۖ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

بالتأكيد لك كامل الحرية بأن تؤمن بما تشاء. لكن إذا أردت أن تختار عدم الاتفاق مع الجدالات أعلاه. إذاً، كما قال الله في الآية 2:111 أظهر دليلك، إذا كنتَ صادقاً.

هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

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Quick and Yummy Breakfast Burrito


  • 3 eggs (90 calories each when scrambled)
  • 10 frozen tater tots (or hash browns or chopped / diced potatoes) (160 calories)
  • 1 tbsp sour cream (15 calories) or Hummus (optional)
  • 1 10″ tortilla (200 calories) (Super soft Mission brand flour tortillas are good)
  • 1 slice of cheese (optional) (cheddar: 70 calories)
  • Total Calories: ~ 750


  1. Cook tater tots until cooked
    • Bake in conventional oven for ~ 30 minute at 425 F
    • Air crisp in Ninja Foodi Grill for 10 minutes at 350 F
  2. Spray olive oil in a pan, mix eggs, sprinkle salt and pepper to taste, and scramble.
  3. Throw tater tots in pan and mix with scrambled eggs
  4. Smear sour cream evenly on one side of tortilla
  5. Place scrambled eggs and tater tots on tortilla
  6. Place a slice of cheese on top of scrambled eggs and tater tots mix
  7. Microwave for 35 seconds to melt cheese
  8. Fold tortilla and, optionally, place on pan to heat each side for 30 seconds or place in a panini grill for 30 seconds


Continue reading Quick and Yummy Breakfast Burrito

Aliens Do Exist – A Quranic Analysis

Some Muslims believe that there are no aliens. However, the Quran indicates that there are living creatures beyond the Earth.

Definition of alien

Alien: “An extraterrestrial being. A form (s) of life assumed to exist outside the Earth or its atmosphere within other parts of the Universe”

What is the Arabic word “Da’aba”?

Da’aba means to go gently, crawl, creep or walk. The word basically captures whatsoever moves on the earth, especially that of animals and beasts of burden, quadrupeds, any moving creature, insects, and humans.

Daabatun (n.): Moving creature; Crawling animal.

Dawaabbun (n.plu.): Crawling animals.

Daba has been used to denote humans too (24:45; 35:45). It is also used negatively (16:61 8:22; 8.55).

Dabbah n.f. (pl. dawab) has been used many times in the Quran: 2:164, 6:38, 8:22, 8:55, 11:6, 11:56, 16:49, 16:61, 22:18, 24:45, 27:82, 29:60, 31:10, 34:14, 35:28, 35:45, 42:29, 45:4

What is the Arabic word “Samawaat (heavens)”?

The Quranic expression “Samawat wal ‘ard” means “The Heavens and the Earth”. It denotes the whole Universe in its entirety.

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۖ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ ۖ مَا مِن شَفِيعٍ إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِ إِذْنِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ
Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth (Arabic: samawat wal ‘ard) in six days and then established Himself above the Throne, arranging the matter [of His creation]. There is no intercessor except after His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Then will you not remember? (10:3)
وَلَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا فِي السَّمَاءِ بُرُوجًا وَزَيَّنَّاهَا لِلنَّاظِرِينَ
And We have placed within the heaven (Arabic: samaa) great stars and have beautified it for the observers. (15:16)
وَزَيَّنَّا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَابِيحَ
… And We adorned the nearest heaven (Arabic: samaa) with lamps (stars) … (41:12)
إِنَّا زَيَّنَّا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا بِزِينَةٍ الْكَوَاكِبِ
Indeed, We have adorned the nearest heaven (Arabic: samaa) with an adornment of stars / planets. (37:6)

Based on the above verses, it should be clear that the Arabic word “samaa” (heaven) or plural “samawaat” (heavens) means the entire universe.

Proof of alien existence

Now that we know what da’ba (moving creature) and samawaat (heavens / universe) mean, we can see from verse 42:29 that there are moving creates in both the heavens and the earth.

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَثَّ فِيهِمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ ۚ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ جَمْعِهِمْ إِذَا يَشَاءُ قَدِيرٌ
And of his signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and what He has dispersed in both of them (Arabic: fi-hima) of creatures. And He, for gathering them when He wills, is competent.(42:29)

The basis of the question posed by the angels

In verse 2:30, there is a story about the angels questioning God regarding man’s vicegerency on the Earth.

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a vicegerent.” They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I know that which you do not know.”(42:29)

For the angels to ask whether God was going to place on Earth a creature such as humans who will shed blood, they must have known about a similar creature that sheds blood, e.g. in some other part of the universe. If the angels had no prior knowledge of a similar creature that behaves that way, they wouldn’t have asked that question. At this point in the conversation with God, humans had not yet been created. Also, angels have no knowledge of the future as, according to the Quran, only God knows the future.

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Most Muslims Are Asian, Not Arab

Many people associate Muslims with Arabs – possibly because the Quran is in Arabic and Prophet Muhammad was an Arab. However, statistics show that the majority of Muslims as of 2019 are from South Asia.

2017 Statistics

According to Wikipedia, as of 2017, here are the top 8 most populous Muslim countries, ordered by Muslim population.

RankCountryMuslim PopulationPercentage of World Muslim Population

Most Muslims don’t speak Arabic

All but one country, Egypt, in the list above are non-Arabic speaking countries and they make up more than half (58.7%) of the world Muslim population.

Most Muslims are from South / Southeast Asia

Furthermore, the first four countries in the list above are all in South/Southeast Asia and make up almost half (43.9%) of the world’s Muslim population. As of 2017, there were 986,420,000 Muslims in Asia and only 370,070,000 Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa (Arabic-speaking countries), i.e. there were 2.6 times as many Muslims in Asia as there were in the Middle East and North Africa.

Most populous Muslim country

Though Indonesia currently has the largest population of Muslims, it likely only became so as of 1947 when the British divided India into India and Pakistan. And in 1971, India was further divided into India and Bangladesh. Had either of these partitions not happened, India would by far have the largest percentage of Muslims worldwide. Furthermore, projections suggest that by 2050 India will have the world’s largest population of Muslims, with estimates expected to reach at least 300 million.

Islam to be largest religion by 2070

The Pew Research Center estimates that by 2070, Islam will overtake Christianity, due to a faster birth rate (2.7 children per family vs. 2.2 for Christian families). As of 2017, Islam is the fastest-growing religion in the world.

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Proof That Relatives (Wives, Children, Descendants, etc) of Islamic Prophets, Including Muhammad, Are Not Automatically Righteous

Many Muslims believe that certain people such as Prophet Muhammad’s wives, by virtue of being married to the prophet, are automatically righteous and are guaranteed paradise

However, the Quran makes it clear that no one is automatically righteous. In verse 2:124, we see proof that not all of Prophet Abraham’s offspring are righteous.

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ
And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham was tried by his Lord with commands and he fulfilled them. [ Allah ] said, “Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people.” [Abraham] said, “And of my descendants?” [ Allah ] said, “My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.” (2:124)

Similarly, this verse also means that the descendants of Prophet Muhammad can also be wrongdoers.

According to 2:134, the actions of others will have no bearing on us.

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
That was a nation which has passed on. It will have [the consequence of] what it earned, and you will have what you have earned. And you will not be asked about what they used to do. (2:134)

According to 2:281, each soul carries the burden of their own actions on their own soul.

وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
And fear a Day when you will be returned to Allah . Then every soul will be compensated for what it earned, and they will not be treated unjustly. (2:281)

Some points to consider:

  • Most of prophet Abraham and prophet Noah’s descendants were unrighteous (57:26, 37:113, 2:124)
  • The wives of prophet Noah and prophet Lot, despite living with then, remained unrighteous.(66:10)
  • Prophet Noah’s son was of evil conduct (11:46)
  • Prophet Jacob’s sons tried to kill their brother, Joseph. (11:1-18)
  • Pharaoh’s wife was righteous despite being married to one of the worse (11:46)
  • Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) wives were threatened with twice the punishment if their conduct was unrighteous. (33:30)


Righteousness is an individual matter. It cannot be ascribed to one based on lineage, relationship, companionship or indeed proximity. No one can know the true affairs of the heart except God. Each individual is subjected to their own circumstances, faculties, reason, judgment, resources and clarity of message that has reached them. Each person is unique as is their case with God.

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There Is No Punishment for Blasphemy in Islam

Many Muslims believe that blasphemy (ridiculing) Islam or Prophet Muhammad demands a penalty. Some Muslims even take matters into their own hands and kill people who ridicule the prophet. However, the Quran does not prescribe any penalty for blasphemy. As a matter of fact, the Quran indicates that the prophet himself was often ridiculed in person and the prophet was told to simply ignore them as if to let God deal with them.

Blasphemy towards Prophet Muhammad, the Quran and God Himself

We see in the Quran that Prophet Muhammad

  • was mocked and ridiculed (37:12) like the messengers before him (13:32; 15:11; 21:41)
  • was called an inventor, forger, liar (16:101; 25:4)
  • was called a man who was bewitched (17:47; 25:8)
  • was called a possessed poet (37:36)

We also see in the Quran that it was called

  • “Muddled dreams” (21:5)
  • “Foreign, outlandish” (16:103
  • an invention, a forgery (38:7)
  • Tales of the men of the past (25:5)

Of course, the gravest blasphemy was that done against God Himself (7:180)

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا ۖ وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ ۚ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
And to Allah belong the best names, so invoke Him by them. but shun such men as use profanity (Arabic: Yul’hiduna) in His names. They will be recompensed for what they have been doing. (7:180)

The Arabic word “yul-hiduna” means to blaspheme, deviate, violate, distort, pervert.

Nowhere in the Quran did any of these insults attract the death penalty. Rather, the advice given was to be patient as indicated in 38:17 and 20:130.

اصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الْأَيْدِ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ
Be patient over what they say and remember Our servant, David, the possessor of strength; indeed, he was one who repeatedly turned back [to Allah ]. (38:17)
فَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا ۖ وَمِنْ آنَاءِ اللَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْ وَأَطْرَافَ النَّهَارِ لَعَلَّكَ تَرْضَىٰ
So be patient over what they say and exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting; and during periods of the night [exalt Him] and at the ends of the day, that you may be satisfied. (38:17)

The Right to Kill

From the Quran’s perspective, the right to kill is only allowable in two circumstances.

  1. As a retribution for murder (punishable by the state). (5:32)
  2. As a retribution for causing ‘fasaad’ (gross mischief, spreading corruption, evil, beyond all bounds) in the land (punishable by the state). (5:33-34)

Murder (5:32)

مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَٰلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَن قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا …
Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. … (5:32)

“Fasaad” (gross evil beyond bounds) (5:33-34)

إِنَّمَا جَزَاءُ الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَسَادًا أَن يُقَتَّلُوا أَوْ يُصَلَّبُوا أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُم مِّنْ خِلَافٍ أَوْ يُنفَوْا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive upon earth [to cause] corruption is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land. That is for them a disgrace in this world; and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment. Except for those who return [repenting] before you apprehend them. And know that Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (5:33-34)

Note that 5:33 uses the word “strive” (Arabic: ya-ouna) which indicates that the corruption and evil done is one that is repeated with serious efforts. What’s also interesting to note about verses 5:33-34 are the punishment options:

  • Execution
  • Crucifixion
  • Exile

What is also significant is verse 5:34 which states that if evildoers repent before they are captured, then they should not be punished according to 5:33.

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Proof That Arabic is Not a Holy or Superior Language

Many Muslims believe that because the Quran is in Arabic, then Arabic must be a holy or superior language. However, the Quran makes it clear that this is not the case.

No distinction between languages

In verse 30:22, we see that God makes no distinction between any language.

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّلْعَالِمِينَ
And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge. (30:22)

Obviously, Arabic is important if you want to study the Quran since it’s in Arabic but that doesn’t mean that Arabic is better than any other language. Similarly, if one wanted to study the Torah or Injil, then other languages such as Hebrew or Latin would be important for understanding those scriptures.

Different messengers, different languages, but same message

The Quran was revealed in Arabic for no reason other than so that the designated primary audience at the time (Arabs) could understand it. The same reason applied to all previous messengers. Previous messengers were Muslim yet they did not speak nor pray in Arabic. They were sent with the language of their people so they could communicate clearly to their people. This is proven in verse 14:4.

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ ۖ فَيُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
And We did not send any messenger except [speaking] in the language of his people to state clearly for them, and Allah sends astray [thereby] whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (14:4)

Arabic for an Arabic-speaking community

Even though the Quran is meant for all of mankind, verse 42:7 proves that the Quran was sent down in Arabic so that the prophet could warn his own mother town and the immediate towns around him.

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لِّتُنذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَىٰ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا وَتُنذِرَ يَوْمَ الْجَمْعِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۚ فَرِيقٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌ فِي السَّعِيرِ
And thus We have revealed to you an Arabic Qur’an that you may warn the Mother of Cities [Makkah] and those around it and warn of the Day of Assembly, about which there is no doubt. A party will be in Paradise and a party in the Blaze. (42:7)

The term “hawlaha” means “around it” and refers to towns immediately around the mother city. It does not mean all towns all around the world. Thus definition can be verified by seeing other uses of the term “hawlaha” in the Quran. Therefore, if the Quran needed to be explained to someone in China, it would need to be translated into Chinese.

God translated historical stories into Arabic

Note verses 26:162-163 as follows:

إِنِّي لَكُمْ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ
Indeed, I am to you a trustworthy messenger. So fear Allah and obey me. (26:162-163)

The same Arabic sentence has been used for Prophets Noah (26:106-107), Hud (26:125-126); Saleh (26:143-144); Lut (26:162-163) and Shuaib (pbut) (26:178-179) one after the other. Not one of these messengers ever delivered this sentence in Arabic but rather in their own languages to their own people. Therefore, it is the message which is important, not the language it is delivered in. The Quran itself is a translation from other languages into Arabic.

There are many historical dialogues and stories mentioned in the Quran of Prophets Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus (pbut), different messengers, angels, Iblis (Satan), Pharaoh, and even of an ant (27:18) and a Hoopoe bird (27:22). All this speech has been captured and translated by God Himself for an Arabic audience to grasp the message and its wisdom. If God can translate the speech of others throughout history to make the message clear to an Arab audience, then why can’t non-Arabic speakers focus their endeavors to understand the message in their own languages?

This explanation is proven a few verses later in 26:195-196.

بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِيٍّ مُّبِينٍ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِي زُبُرِ الْأَوَّلِينَ
In a clear Arabic language. And indeed, it is [mentioned] in the scriptures of former peoples. (26:162-163)

Same Message, Different Language

The message that was revealed before the Quran is the same as what was revealed in the Quran. This is proven in verse 41:43.

مَّا يُقَالُ لَكَ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ قِيلَ لِلرُّسُلِ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ وَذُو عِقَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
Nothing is said to you, [O Muhammad], except what was already said to the messengers before you. Indeed, your Lord is a possessor of forgiveness and a possessor of painful penalty. (41:43)

According to verse 41:44, God chose Arabic for the Quran because no one would have believed Muhammad if the Quran was in a foreign language to the Arabs.

… وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا أَعْجَمِيًّا لَّقَالُوا لَوْلَا فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ ۖ أَأَعْجَمِيٌّ وَعَرَبِيٌّ ۗ قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا هُدًى وَشِفَاءٌ
And if We had made it a non-Arabic Qur’an, they would have said, “Why are its verses not explained in detail [in our language]? Is it a foreign [recitation] and an Arab [messenger]?” … (41:44)

Therefore, to conclude, Arabic is not a special and holy language.

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Proof That Prophet Muhammad Is Not Exclusive or Superior to Other Prophets

Many Muslims believe that prophet Muhammad is more special than the other prophets

However, the Quran makes it clear that all prophets are equal and that Muhammad is no more special than the other prophets. This is proven in verse 2:285.

آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ ۚ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا …
“The messenger believes in that which has been revealed to him from his Lord and (so do) believers. Each one believes in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers – We make no distinction between any of His messengers – and they say: We hear, and we obey. …. ” (2:285)

Some Muslims assume that because the Quran was revealed to prophet Muhammad that he must be superior to other prophets and messengers. However, other prophets also have exclusive characteristics that, in some cases, may make them seem superior.

Prophet Moses’ Exclusivity

  • Only once has God used the Arabic term ‘mahabbata(n)-minni’ (love from me) with respect to a child and this is with regards Prophet Moses (pbuh) (20:39)
  • Prophet Moses (pbuh) is the only Messenger of God mentioned by name that was spoken to directly by God. Others, including Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) only received inspiration (4:163-164)
  • Prophet Moses (pbuh) was chosen over ‘mankind’ (Arabic: is’tafaytuka ala l-nasi) by virtue of his mission and because God spoke to him directly (7:144)
  • Prophet Moses (pbuh) is the most mentioned Messenger of God in the Quran whilst Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is only mentioned four times directly by name (3:144, 33:40, 47:2, 48:29).

Prophet Jesus’ Exclusivity

  • He was the only Prophet strengthened with the Holy Spirit since birth (5:110)
  • He was born with wisdom and spoke with wisdom as a young child (19:29; 3:46, 5:110) unlike other Prophets who did not receive Divine guidance until later in life (e.g. Prophets Abraham, Moses and Muhammad (pbut))
  • He was conceived from an immaculate conception (3:47; 19:20)
  • He was granted the power to heal the sick, the blind and to bring the dead to life (5:110).

Prophet Solomon’s Exclusivity

  • No messenger of God was given a kingdom such as that of Prophet Solomon (pbuh) after him (38:35)
  • He understood the speech of birds (along with Prophet David) (pbuh) (27:16) and the ants (27:19)
  • He had control over the winds (38:36; 21:81)
  • He had control over the Jinn that worked for him (38:37)

Prophet Abraham’s Exclusivity

  • Prophet Abraham (pbuh) is referred to as the father of faith (22:78)
  • Prophet Abraham (pbuh) is referred to as a ‘khalil’ (friend) of God (4:125)
  • Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and all believers are asked to follow the footsteps / religious ways of Prophet Abraham (pbuh) (16:123)

Prophet Noah’s Exclusivity

  • He was the only prophet or messenger of God mentioned as being granted such an extended life span of 950 years (29:14)

Prophet Jonah’s Exclusivity

  • Prophet Jonah (pbuh) is the only messenger of God whose subsequent Prophetic ministerial success is expressed in numbers of over 100,000 believers (37:147-148).

Prophet Joseph’s Exclusivity

  • His charm / beauty was greatly admired (akbara), awed at (hasha-lillah – God save us) and even likened to that of a noble angel (malakun karim) (12:31)
  • He has been mentioned as being granted the wisdom to interpret dreams / events (12:6; 21; 36; 46; 100-101)

Though God has preferred and ranked some messengers over others, believers are not allowed to rank or differentiate between the messengers.

تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ …
We have made some of these messengers to excel the others among them are they to whom God spoke, and some of them He exalted by rank / degrees; and We gave clear miracles to Jesus son of Mary, and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. … (2:253)
وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۖ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا
And We have made some of the prophets exceed others [in various ways], and to David We gave the book [of Psalms]. (17:55)

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Muslims (Submitters) and Mu’mins (Believers) Are Not the Same Thing

Many Muslims believe that the term “Muslim” and “Mu’min” are interchangeable and have the same meaning. However, according to the Quran, many people are Muslims (including some Jews and Christians) but not all Muslims are Mu’mins.

A “Muslim” (Submitter) by definition is anyone who submits or surrenders their will to the one true God. This is irrespective of whether or not they believe in the Quran or prophet Muhammad.

A “Mu’min” (Believer), in the context of the Quran, is one who believes in

  1. The one true God
  2. All of God’s angels
  3. All of God’s scriptures including the Torah, Injeel, and Quran
  4. All of God’s messengers including Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad

One may be a Muslim (Submitter) but not yet be a Mu’min (believer) as true faith has not yet entered their hearts. This is proven in verse 49:14.

قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَٰكِن قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ ۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لَا يَلِتْكُم مِّنْ أَعْمَالِكُمْ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
The desert Arabs say, “We believe!” Say, “Do not say you believe; but only say, ‘We have submitted our wills to God (as Submitters / Muslims),’ as belief has not yet entered your hearts. But if you obey God and His Messenger, He will not deprive you anything of your deeds: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (49:14)

Therefore, being a Muslim (Submitter) first is a pre-requisite for acquiring belief to become a Mu’min (believer). Verse 7:143 shows the example of prophet Moses when he became a Mu’min (believer). Verse 2:260 shows the example of prophet Abraham who asked to have his heart strengthened so that he could become a Mu’min (believer).

There are many proofs in the Quran of people who lived before prophet Muhammad and were Muslim.

  • Prophet Noah (10:72)
  • Prophet Solomon (27:31, 27:42)
  • Prophet Lot (51:36)
  • Prophet Abraham (3:67)
  • Disciples of Prophet Jesus (3:52)
  • Prophet Joseph (12:101)
  • Prophet Jacob’s children (2:133)
  • Pharaoh’s magicians (7:126)

None of these people could have known of the Quran or the coming of prophet Muhammad, yet they are described as Muslims (Submitters). Therefore, being a Muslim (Submitter), according to the Quran, does not require belief in the Quran or prophet Muhammad. It just requires submitting one’s will to the one true God.

As a matter of fact, during the time of prophet Muhammad some people amongst the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) did believe in Muhammad and they, therefore, were Mu’mins (believers) even though they were still Jews and Christians.

وَإِذَا سَمِعُوا مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ تَرَىٰ أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُوا مِنَ الْحَقِّ ۖ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا آمَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِينَ
And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of what they have recognized of the truth. They say, “Our Lord, we have believed, so register us among the witnesses. (5:83)
وَإِنَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَمَن يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ خَاشِعِينَ …
And there are, certainly, among the People of the Book, those who believe in God, in the revelation to you (Muhammad), and in the revelation to them (Torah, Injil), bowing in humility to God …. (3:199)

People who believed in the previous scriptures, including Jews and Christians, were already Muslims.

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِهِ هُم بِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَإِذَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِهِ إِنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلِهِ مُسْلِمِينَ
Those to whom We gave the Scripture before it – they are believers in it. And when it is recited to them, they say, “We have believed in it; indeed, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed we were, [even] before it, Submitters (Muslims).” (28:52-53)
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