Lailat Al-Qadr Is Not What You Think It Is

Many Muslims believe that they will reap some huge reward or all of their sins will be washed away if they perform lots of worship during one unknown night near the end of the month of Ramadan. However, there is no statement in the Quran that tells people to try and find Lailat Al-Qadr.

According to verses 97:1-5, we know that God revealed something in the Night of Decree (Laylatul-qadr).

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِوَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ أَمْرٍ سَلَامٌ هِيَ حَتَّىٰ مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ
Indeed, We sent it down (Arabic: Anzalnahu) during the Night of Decree. And what can make you know what is the Night of Decree? The Night of Decree is better than a thousand months. The angels and the Spirit descend therein by permission of their Lord for every matter. Peace it is until the emergence of dawn. (97:1-5)

The Arabic word “anzalnahu” means “we sent it down”. This most like means that the Quran was sent down. If we look at verse 44:2-4, we find that the same word (anzalnahu) was used to describe the Quran being sent down.

وَالْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُنذِرِينَ
By the clear Book (Quran), Indeed, We sent it down during (Arabic: Anzalnahu) a blessed night. Indeed, We were to warn [mankind]. (44:2-4)

According to verse 2:185, we find that the Quran was revealed in the month of Ramadan.

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْ…
The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. … (2:185 part)

And according to verse 17:106, we find that the Quran was not revealed all at once or only during the month of Ramadan but rather a little at a time throughout prophet Muhammad’s ministry.

وَقُرْآنًا فَرَقْنَاهُ لِتَقْرَأَهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلَىٰ مُكْثٍ وَنَزَّلْنَاهُ تَنزِيلًا
And [it is] a Qur’an which We have separated [by intervals] that you might recite it to the people over a prolonged period. And We have sent it down progressively. (17:106)

Based on the facts about Laylatul-Qadr described above, we see that the Quran never tells people to seek the Night of Decree (Laylatul Qadr). The revelation of the Quran began on the Night of Decree (Laylatul Qadr) and the rest of the Quran was revealed throughout the remainder of Muhammad’s life.

Lastly, the purpose of fasting in the month of Ramadhan is to guard against evil and learn self-restraint (Arabic: tattaqun) as described in verse 2:183.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may learn self-restraint / guard against evil – (2:183)

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Most Muslims Start & End Fasting At the Wrong Time

Do we begin fasting at the time of fajr or some time afterwards?

Many Muslims believe that fasting begins when it’s time for fajr prayer. However, careful analysis would prove that fasting begins some time after when fajr prayer begins.

The Quran in verse 2:187 indicates that fasting begins when “the white thread of dawn appears to you distinct from its black thread.”

وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ
… And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from its black thread. …(2:187)

In order to determine when fasting should begin, we need to understand a few concepts.

Fajr Prayer Period

Fajr is an Arabic word that means dawn. Therefore, the fajr prayer means the dawn prayer which means the fajr prayer time period is from the beginning of dawn until the end of dawn.

What is dawn?

By definition, dawn begins when the sun starts to lighten the sky and ends when the sunrise begins. Scientifically, there are 3 stages of dawn:

  1. Astronomical Dawn
    Astronomical Dawn is when the geometric center of the Sun’s disk is 18 degrees below the horizon. At this point, twilight is so faint that it is generally indistinguishable from night, especially in areas with light pollution.
  2. Nautical Dawn / First Light
    Nautical dawn is when the geometric center of the Sun’s disk reaches an angle of 12 degrees below the horizon. The sunlight reflected by the atmosphere is now generally sufficient to distinguish the sky from land or water in clear weather conditions. This is also called “first light” because it’s the first point of dawn when the sun’s light (not the sun itself) is noticeable to the human eye.
  3. Civil Dawn
    Civil dawn is when the geometric center of the Sun’s disc is 6° below the horizon.


Sunrise is when the geometric center of the Sun’s disk is at the horizon.

Beginning of fajr prayer time period

Muslims usually take astronomical dawn to be the beginning of the fajr prayer time period even though the sky is still dark to the human eye and light is only visible in certain conditions and possibly using scientific equipment.

Beginning of fasting

Since verse 2:187 indicates that fasting begins at the point when sunlight first becomes visible to the human eye, then based on the stages of dawn described above, the beginning of fasting would be at the beginning of the nautical dawn stage, aka “first light”.


Since Muslims consider the fajr prayer to begin at astronomical dawn and since we have just proven that the beginning of fasting begins at nautical dawn (first light), then fasting begins some time after the fajr prayer. In order to determine when nautical dawn or first light occurs in your area, you can visit

Do we end fasting at the time of maghrib (sunset) or night (layl)?

Many Muslims believe that the time to break their fast in Ramadan is at Maghrib (sunset). However, the Quran makes it very clear that you must fast till night time (layl) which is as soon as there is no more sunlight in the sky, not when the sun is setting and it’s still bright outside. This is proven in verse 2:187.

وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ
…and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appears to you distinct from its black thread. Then complete the fast till the night (Arabic: layl)… (2:187)

At no place in the Quran is ‘layl’ (night) the same thing as sunset.

What is sunset?

The description of “sunset” is clearly defined when we look at the following verse:

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَغْرِبَ الشَّمْسِ
Until, when he reached the setting of the sun (Arabic: Maghriba-l-shams) … (18:86)

The word ‘maghriba’ comes from its root word ‘Ghurub’ (G-R-B) which means to retire, to depart, to be hidden from view or to be absent. Used along with ‘shams’ (sun) it refers to sunset, or the west which is clearly the setting place of the sun.

Verse 2:187 does not instruct people to fast until the ‘ghurub’ of the ‘shams’ (setting of the sun). Rather, it informs people to fast till ‘layl’ (night).

In verse 20:130 and 50:39, we see another reference to “ghurub” which clearly indicate the setting of the sun, aka “sunset”.

فَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا
So be patient over what they say and exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting; … (20:130)
فَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ
So be patient, [O Muhammad], over what they say and exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting, (50:39)

As you can see, the term “ghurub” which means “sunset” is well known in the Quran. If God wanted people to end their fast at sunset, He could have just used the word “ghurub” but He didn’t. Instead, God wanted people to end their fast at night which is why He used the word “layl”.

Following are some dictionary definitions of “ghurub”.

OMAR, A M, Dictionary of the Holy Quran, Arabic Words – English Meanings, Noor Foundation – International Inc, First Edition May 24, 2003, Reprint used February 26 2010, Page 400

LANE. E.W, Edward Lanes Lexicon, Williams and Norgate 1863; Librairie du Liban Beirut-Lebanon 1968, Volume 3, Page 971

What is “layl” (night)

Layl (night) is when there is no more noticeable sunlight in the sky. In other words, it is when twilight has ended and the sky is dark.

In verse 91:1-4, we see that “layl” or night is when both the sun and its light can no longer be seen.

وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحَاهَا وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلَاهَاوَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّاهَا وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَاهَا
By the Sun and its brightness (splendour, brightness, brilliance – duha) and the moon when it follows it and the day (Arabic: nahar) when it displays it (sun’s glory) and the night (Arabic: layl) when it covers / conceals it. (18:86)

If the sun is below the horizon and hidden from view but sunlight is still seen in the sky, that’s still sunset (ghurub) and not layl (night).

In verse 10:067 we see proof that daytime (nahar) is contrasted with nighttime (layl) in that daytime is when you can see things / things are visible.

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَالنَّهَارَ مُبْصِرًا
It is He who made for you the night to rest therein and the day, giving sight. (18:86)

Obviously, at sunset or maghrib time, you can still see things outside because there’s still plenty of sunlight in the sky. That’s because it isn’t nighttime (layl) yet.

Following are some verses that reference the word “layl” which clearly indicate it to mean nighttime and not sunset.

وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ لِبَاسًا وَالنَّوْمَ سُبَاتًا وَجَعَلَ النَّهَارَ نُشُورًا
And it is He who has made the night for you as clothing and sleep [a means for] rest and has made the day a resurrection. (25:47)
وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَ الْقُرَى الَّتِي بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا قُرًى ظَاهِرَةً وَقَدَّرْنَا فِيهَا السَّيْرَ ۖ سِيرُوا فِيهَا لَيَالِيَ وَأَيَّامًا آمِنِينَ
And We made between them and the towns which We had blessed, towns easy to be seen, and We made stages of journey between them easy, (saying): Travel in them safely both by night (Arabic: layliya) and day. (34:18)
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ تَقُومُ أَدْنَىٰ مِن ثُلُثَيِ اللَّيْلِ وَنِصْفَهُ وَثُلُثَهُ وَطَائِفَةٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ مَعَكَ
Indeed, your Lord knows, [O Muhammad], that you stand [in prayer] almost two-thirds of the night or half of it or a third of it, and [so do] a group of those with you. … (73/20)

It would be hard to believe that the reference to the word “layl” in the above verses means sunset.

In verse 79:29, we see one more reference to “layl” which indicates that it is when there is darkness as opposed to brightness.

وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَاهَا
And He darkened its night and extracted its brightness. (79:29)

When does layl (night) begin?

The Quran refers to certain periods of nighttime as being totally dark. For example, ‘al-layli muzliman’ (10:27) or ‘ghasaq al-layl’ (17:78). The Quran in verse 12:16 also refers to “night” as “isha” to describe the night prayer (salaat al-isha). However, the Quran doesn’t use any of these terms to describe the time at which to end fasting. Therefore, it would be reasonable to understand the beginning of night to be the end of sunset when there is no more light in the sky.


The twilight phases in the morning are often called dawn, while the twilight phases in the evening are referred to as dusk. However, unlike the term twilight, which describes a time span, the terms dawn and dusk refer to moments during the transitions between day and night.

Civil dawn is the moment when the geometric center of the Sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the morning. It is preceded by nautical twilight.

Similarly, civil dusk is the instant when the geometric center of the Sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. It marks the beginning of nautical twilight.

Following is an example of the different parts of a day (and night) for San Francisco on June 5, 2017.

Black is nighttime, light blue is daytime. The darker blue shadings represent the twilight phases during dawn (left) and dusk (right).

As you can see, sunset / dusk / ghurub begins at 8:28 PM. This is also the beginning of civil twilight and corresponds to the time when Muslims pray Maghrib. However, you’ll notice that when you step outside at Maghrib, there’s still plenty of sunlight in the sky. Obviously, this is not night (layl). Complete night (total darkness), in this example, begins at 10:21 PM. The beginning of night should, therefore, at least, be at the end of civil twilight which, in this example, is at 8:59 PM. According to Weather Underground (, last light is at 8:59 PM. If you step outside at this time, you’ll notice that the sky is dark. Therefore, it is reasonable to take the beginning of “layl” (night) to be at the end of civil twilight.

You can also use the Golden Hour app. The screenshot of Golden Hour below shows last light (beginning of night) in Hayward, CA, USA on Dec 27, 2021 to be at 5:26 PM.

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Islamic Misconceptions About the Call to Prayer (Adhaan)

Is the call to prayer (adhaan) correct?

Many Muslims hear the call to prayer (adhaan) and assume it is correct. However, the most widely used version of the call to prayer contains wording that not only seems irrelevant, but also possibly contradictory to the purpose of the call. According to Wikipedia, the Sunni call to prayer, for example, contains the wording “I acknowledge that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.”

A couple of questions worth asking are:

  • If the caller to prayer (muezzin) is calling or telling people to pray to God, why is he (it’s always a male) saying that he acknowledges that Muhammad is the messenger of God?
  • In verse 72:18, God makes it clear that mosques (places of worship) are for God and that we must not invoke anyone with God. Verse 20:14 makes it clear that prayer is to remember God. Based on these two verses, is it even necessary or allowed to mention that Muhammad is a messenger of God? God has many messengers including Abraham and, according to 2:285, they should all be treated equally. Exclusively stating that Muhammad is the messenger of God would therefore violate 2:285.
وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا
And [He revealed] that the masjids are for God, so do not invoke with God anyone. (72:18)
إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي
Indeed, I am God. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance. (20:14)
لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ
We make no distinction between any of His messengers. (2:285)

Based on these issues, a more logical version of the call to prayer that also doesn’t violate the Quran would be as follows:

God is the greatest.God is the greatest.
I acknowledge that there is no god but God.There is no god but God.
I acknowledge that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.
Hasten to prayer (Salah).
Hasten to success.
God is the greatest.
There is no god but God.

I didn’t mention the number of times each statement should be said since that is irrelevant. It could be twice, four times, or however many times one sees fit.

I also excluded the “Hasten to prayer” and “Hasted to success” statements since people already know that they should pray as soon as it’s time and that praying is one of many requirements for long-term success. Everyone knows that when the call to prayer is done, it is time to pray and that they should pray. The purpose of prayer is to worship God alone and the two statements in the proposed call to prayer clearly focus on that aspect.

Must the call to prayer be done in Arabic?

Many Muslims in non-Muslim countries believe that the call to prayer must be done in Arabic. However, there is no requirement in the Quran that it be done in Arabic. It is clear that the purpose of the call to prayer is to remind people that it’s time to pray so that they go and pray. If people don’t speak or understand Arabic, then an Arabic call to prayer becomes less useful. Although most non-Arabic-speaking people know that when they hear the call to prayer in Arabic that it’s time to pray, not understanding the meaning of the words uttered during the call would render it effectively no different than if someone blew a horn or rang a bell.

Must the call to prayer be done live or can it be prerecorded?

Many Muslims think that the call to prayer must be done live and that playing a prerecorded version of the call is invalid. However, there are no requirements in the Quran that it be done live. It is commonly known that the first person to perform the call to prayer was a man by the name of Bilal. It is also commonly known that he was chosen for having a good voice. Unfortunately, many callers to prayer (muezzins) do not have a good voice and to make matters worse, they use modern-day technology (loudspeakers) to blast their unpleasant voices all over town and sometimes right next to people’s living rooms. It is clear that God has given some people gifts over others, such as a nice voice. There are many people who have a nice voice and can perform the call to prayer such that it is generally more pleasant to listen to. These calls can be recorded and played either manually or automatically. It is clear that doing so has many benefits including motivating people to actually pray rather than cover their ears. While some people may argue that using modern-day technology by playing a recording invalidates the call, that argument would also invalidate all current methods of the call to prayer since they use loudspeakers which did not exist during the time of Muhammad. Regardless, there are no specific requirements in the Quran with regards to the call to prayer. Therefore, God has given us the freedom to perform it however best we can. Playing a recording of a pleasant-sounding call to prayer would clearly result in a better, consistent and more motivating experience for the target audience.

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Most Muslims Are Wrong About Various Aspects of Prayer

Do we have to pray in Arabic?

Most Muslims believe that praying must be done in Arabic. However, the Quran does not require prayer to be done only in Arabic. As a matter of fact, the Quran requires that you understand what you are saying when you are praying. If you don’t speak Arabic, you would likely not understand what you are saying, in which case you should probably pray in a language that you understand. Sadly, many, if not most, Muslims today continue to pray in Arabic yet have only a vague idea as to the meaning of the Arabic sounds they make. Many Muslims who were raised Muslim were taught to memorize the Arabic words that they utter during prayer. By the time they are adults, or even before then, they could recite the Arabic words without even thinking much or at all. Arguably, if you don’t understand the meaning of the words you utter during prayer, you will likely lose focus and your mind will wander off to think about anything but God. Consequently, it would be understandable to see why some people would lose interest in praying or feel that it is futile as they don’t feel any connection with God or feel they are even communicating with God.

Variations in language and color

In verse 30:22, we see that God created man having different languages and colors.

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّلْعَالِمِينَ
And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed in that are signs for those of knowledge. (30:22)

And since God is fair and just, it wouldn’t make sense that God would make any particular group or groups of people at an advantage or disadvantage, whether due to native language or for any other reason.

Different Messengers, Different Languages

Verse 14:4 proves that the messengers of God all spoke the language of their respective communities.

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ ۖ فَيُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
And We did not send any messenger except [speaking] in the language of his people to state clearly for them, and Allah sends astray [thereby] whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (14:4)

There are many verses in the Quran that prove that many of the prophets before Muhammad prayed. That being the case, what language did prophets Moses and Jesus pray in knowing that they did not speak Arabic. What about all of the other prophets and messengers such as Saleh, Hud, Lot, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, David, Solomon? They most likely did not all speak Arabic.

In verse 42:7, we see the Quran was revealed in Arabic to Muhammad, an Arabic-speaking person, to warn the Arabic-speaking people in his community.

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لِّتُنذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَىٰ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا وَتُنذِرَ يَوْمَ الْجَمْعِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۚ فَرِيقٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌ فِي السَّعِيرِ
And thus We have revealed to you an Arabic Qur’an that you may warn the Mother of Cities [Makkah] and those around it and warn of the Day of Assembly, about which there is no doubt. A party will be in Paradise and a party in the Blaze. (42:7)

Though the Quran is meant for all of humanity, the Quran was revealed in Arabic so that the immediate community who spoke Arabic would understand it. Obviously, if the Quran was to be given to someone in Japan, it would need to be translated into Japanese.

The primordial testimony

In verse 7:172, we see that when God creates everyone (the Children of Adam), God asks each one of us if He is our Lord. In response, each one of us responds by saying, “Yes, we testify” that God is our Lord.

وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَنِي آدَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ ۖ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ ۛ شَهِدْنَا ۛ أَن تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَٰذَا غَافِلِينَ
And [mention] when your Lord took from the children of Adam – from their loins – their descendants and made them testify of themselves, [saying to them], “Am I not your Lord?” They said, “Yes, we have testified.” [This] – lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection, “Indeed, we were of this unaware.” (7:172)

Since we testified to God upon our creation, likely before we even had a chance to open our eyes, what language, then, did we speak to God in?

God understands all languages

Verse 17:44 indicates that everything in existence declares God’s glory and praises Him even though we humans don’t understand how other creatures do it. Nevertheless, the verse proves that God understands all languages.

تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَاوَاتُ السَّبْعُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ ۚ وَإِن مِّن شَيْءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا
The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [ God ] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving. (17:44)

In verse 21:79 we see that mountains, birds and prophet David praised God yet neither did prophet David nor do birds or mountains speak Arabic.

فَفَهَّمْنَاهَا سُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَكُلًّا آتَيْنَا حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا ۚ وَسَخَّرْنَا مَعَ دَاوُودَ الْجِبَالَ يُسَبِّحْنَ وَالطَّيْرَ ۚ وَكُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ
And We gave understanding of the case to Solomon, and to each [of them] We gave judgment and knowledge. And We subjected the mountains to exalt [Us], along with David and [also] the birds. And We were doing [that]. (21:79)

Don’t pray until / unless you understand what you are saying

In verse 4:43, God instructs us to not pray until we understand what we are saying during prayer.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ
O you who have believed, do not approach prayer with a mind befogged (Arabic: sukara) until you know what you are saying … (4:43)

The Arabic word “sukara” in the verse above is usually translated as drunken intoxication as that is the popular meaning of the word. However, like many other words, “sukara” has other meanings, and in the context of this verse, it most likely means a state of mind devoid of clarity whether due to anger, distraction, or anything else. The specific word for “intoxication / drink” is “khamr” as used in verse 5:90. Since “khamr” is not the word used in verse 7:172 above, then the meaning of the phrase “until you know what you are saying” is not about getting over a hangover but rather about literally understanding the meaning of the words you say during prayer.

Based on the correct understanding of verse 7:172 just explained, it would appear that most Muslims are violating this verse since they simply don’t understand the meaning of the words they utter during prayer.

Are you supposed to pray quietly?

Most Muslims pray quietly. However, according to verse 17:110, you’re supposed to pray with a moderate volume.

قُلِ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَٰنَ ۖ أَيًّا مَّا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَلَا تَجْهَرْ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا
Say, “Call upon Allah or call upon the Most Merciful. Whichever [name] you call – to Him belong the best names.” And do not recite [too] loudly in your prayer or [too] quietly but seek between that an [intermediate] way. (17:110)

Can you shorten your prayer while on vacation?

Some Muslims believe that if they are traveling, e.g. on vacation, they can shorten their 4 rakaah prayers to 2 rakaahs. However, the Quran makes it clear that that option is only available if you are in danger, e.g. if an enemy can attack you.

In verse 4:101, if one reads the complete verse and not just the first part of it, we clearly see that the shortening of prayers is only allowed if you are in danger or fear on a journey.

وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا
And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame upon you for shortening the prayer, if you fear that those who disbelieve may disrupt [or attack] you. Indeed, the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy. (4:101)

Can we mention Muhammad or anyone else during prayer?

Many Muslims recite the tashahhud and salawaat al-nabi during prayer. However, the Quran in verse 72:18 and 20:14 make it clear that

  1. Prayer is for God alone
  2. No one should be invoked with God during prayer
إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي
Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance. (20:14)
وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا
And [He revealed] that the masjids are for Allah, so do not invoke with Allah anyone. (72:18)

Therefore, prayer should not mention Muhammad, Abraham or anyone else since prayer is supposed to be exclusively for God.

According to verse 33:56, God asks believers to send blessings on Muhammad.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ۚ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا
Indeed, God confers blessing upon the Prophet, and His angels [ask Him to do so]. O you who have believed, ask [ God to confer] blessing upon him and ask [ Allah to grant him] peace. (33:56)

However, it doesn’t say you must do it during prayer which, according to verse 20:14, is reserved for God. If one wants to ask God to bless Muhammad and Abraham or make a statement of testimony as to their belief that Muhammad is a messenger of God, they can do that after the prayer. To prevent violating the requirements of prayer as stated in the two verses above, one should only mention God and focus on worshipping Him and not mix the statements uttered with anything besides worshipping God. Furthermore, it is clear from the Quran that many people such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and many more, prayed before Muhammad’s time. Since Muhammad didn’t exist yet, they couldn’t have prayed and mentioned Muhammad’s name. Therefore, adding Muhammad’s name during prayer must have been an addition which, unfortunately, violates the Quran.

Can Muhammad or other people’s names be displayed in mosques?

Most mosques throughout the world have Arabic calligraphy written on their walls. They also often emphasize two names in particular: Allah (God) and Muhammad. Most people seem to think this is acceptable. However, verse 72:18 makes it very clear that mosques are for God and that we must not invoke anyone besides God in them.

وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا
And [He revealed] that the masjids are for Allah, so do not invoke with Allah anyone. (72:18)

It is clear that Muhammad is not the only messenger of God. Furthermore, verse 2:285 forbids us from differentiating between the messengers of God.

… الرَّسُولُ … وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ … لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ …
The Messenger … and the believers …, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His (God’s) messengers.” … (2:285)

Therefore, we must treat all messengers as equal. To mention Muhammad’s name in mosques is somewhat a violation of verse 72:18 and to do so without mentioning the other messengers is a violation of 2:285. Therefore, any name besides God’s name should probably not be displayed in mosques.

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Kekeliruan Bahwa Keturunan Nabi Muhammad Lebih Unggul Dari Semua Orang Lain

Artikel ini adalah terjemahan dari versi asli bahasa Inggris.

Ada sekelompok orang yang percaya bahwa mereka adalah keturunan Nabi Muhammad. Istilah populer yang digunakan untuk orang-orang ini adalah “Sayyid” (tunggal) atau “Sadah” (jamak). Ini juga sering ditulis “Syed”. Keturunan Muhammad melalui ibu mereka tetapi bukan ayah disebut sebagai “Mirza”. Meskipun statistik yang dapat diandalkan tidak ada, perkiraan konservatif jumlah Sayyid mencapai puluhan juta. Sayyid dapat ditemukan di seluruh dunia termasuk negara2 yang berikut ini.

Keluarga Sayyid di Irak sangat banyak sehingga ada buku yang ditulis khusus untuk mendaftar keluarga2nya dan menghubungkan mereka.

Sayyid ditemukan dalam jumlah besar di Iran. Kepala “Organisasi Nasional untuk Pencatatan Sipil” Iran menyatakan bahwa lebih dari 6 juta orang Iran adalah Sayyid.

Di Oman, gelar Sayyid digunakan oleh anggota keluarga kerajaan penguasa Al Said. Anggota keluarga besar atau anggota karena perkawinan menyandang gelar Sayyid atau Sayyida untuk perempuan. Gelar semacam itu di Oman diwariskan melalui garis keturunan ayah atau dalam beberapa keadaan luar biasa, seperti gelar kehormatan yang diberikan oleh keputusan kerajaan.

Para Sayyid di Libya adalah Sunni, termasuk bekas keluarga kerajaan, yang aslinya adalah Zaidi-Maroko (juga dikenal sebagai keluarga Senussi).

Di Yaman, Sayyid lebih dikenal sebagai sadah; mereka juga disebut sebagai Hashemites (Bani Hashem). Praktik keagamaan mereka adalah Syiah, Sunni, dan Sufi. Keluarga Sayyid di Yaman termasuk Rassid, Qasimid, Mutawakkilites, Hamideddin, beberapa Al-Zaidi dari Ma’rib, Sana’a, dan Sa’dah, keluarga Ba ‘Alawi sada di Hadhramaut, Al-Wazir dari Sana’ a, Al-Shammam dari Sa’dah, Sufyan dari Juban, dan Al-Jaylani dari Juban.

Yamani Ba ‘Alawi
Istilah Ba’ Alawi (باعلوي) yang dalam dialek Yaman adalah kependekan dari Bani ‘Alawi, yang berarti “kaum atau keturunan ‘Alawi”.

Keluarga Ba ‘Alawi sada menelusuri garis keturunan mereka ke Sayyid al-Imam Ahmad al-Muhajir bin Isa ar-Rumi lahir pada tahun 873 (260H), yang beremigrasi dari Basra ke Hadhramaut pada tahun 931 (320H) untuk menghindari kekerasan sektarian, termasuk invasi pasukan Qaram ke dalam Kekhalifahan Abbasiyah. Cucu Imam al-Muhajir, Alawi, adalah Sayyid pertama yang lahir di Hadhramaut, dan satu-satunya keturunan Imam al-Muhajir yang menghasilkan garis lanjutan; garis keturunan cucu Imam al-Muhajir lainnya, Basri dan Jadid, terputus setelah beberapa generasi. Oleh karena itu, keturunan Imam Al-Muhajir di Hadhramaut memegang nama Bā ‘Alawi (“keturunan ‘Alawi”). Ba ‘Alawi Sadah sejak itu tinggal di Hadhramaut di Yaman Selatan, mempertahankan aliran Sunni di sekolah fiqh Syafi’i. Pada mulanya keturunan Imam Ahmad Muhajir yang menjadi ulama di bidang Islam disebut Imam, kemudian Syekh, namun kemudian dipanggil Habib (kekasih).

Asia Selatan
Pada tahun 1901 jumlah Sayyid (Syed) di India (dibawah penjajahan Inggris) dihitung 1.339.734. Perkiraan terbaru menunjukkan bahwa di India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, dan Nepal terdapat lebih dari 15 juta Sayyid: 8 juta di Pakistan, 7 juta di India, lebih dari 1 juta di Bangladesh, dan sekitar tujuh puluh ribu di Nepal.

Asia Tenggara
Sebagian besar Sayyid Alawi yang pindah ke Asia Tenggara adalah keturunan Ali ibn Husain Zayn al-Abidin, terutama Ba ‘Alawi sada, banyak di antaranya adalah keturunan pendatang dari Hadhramaut. Meskipun mereka diduga sebagai keturunan Husain, tidak biasa para Sayyid perempuan disebut Sayyidah; mereka lebih sering disebut Sharifah. Kebanyakan dari mereka tinggal di Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapura, Provinsi Moro di Filipina, Pattani dan Kamboja. Banyak keluarga kerajaan di wilayah ini seperti keluarga kerajaan Filipina sebelumnya (Kesultanan Sulu, Kesultanan Maguindanao, Konfederasi Kesultanan Ranao), Singapura (Kesultanan Singapura), Malaysia (Kesultanan Johor dan Perlis), Indonesia (Kesultanan Siak, Pontianak, Gowa, beberapa Kesultanan Jawa), dan keluarga kerajaan Brunei (Rumah Bolkiah) yang ada juga adalah Sayyid, terutama dari Ba’Alawi.

Beberapa nama keluarga dari Sayyid ini adalah al-Saqqaf, Shihab (atau Shahab), al-Aidaroos, al-Habsyi (atau al-Habshi), al-Kaff, al-Aththos, al-Haddad, al-Jufri (atau al- Jifri), al-Muhdhar, al-Shaikh Abubakar, al-Qadri, al-Munawwar.

Kekaisaran Ottoman
Di Kekaisaran Ottoman, keturunan Muhammad adalah semacam bangsawan dengan hak istimewa mengenakan turban hijau.

Apakah Sayyid Benar-benar Keturunan Nabi Muhammad?

Studi genetik Sayyid dari India

Penulis studi “Kromosom Y dari Syed di India” menunjukkan bahwa kromosom Y dari Syed yang diidentifikasi sendiri dari India dan Pakistan tidak beda beragamnya dari yang bukan Syed dari wilayah yang sama. Ini menunjukkan bahwa status Syed, daripada benar-benar turun melalui ayah, mungkin turun lewat rute lain. Di samping itu, tidak ada dasar biologis untuk mendukung keyakinan bahwa Syed yang di India dan Pakistan memiliki keturunan yg sama baru-baru ini.


Di Kekaisaran Ottoman, pengecualian pembayaran pajak untuk orang Sayyid mendorong banyak orang untuk membeli sertifikat keturunan atau memalsukan silsilah; Fenomena teseyyüd – yaitu secara bohong mengklaim seseorang sebagai keturunan bangsawan – menyebar melintasi batas etnis, kelas, dan agama. Pada abad ke-17, seorang birokrat Utsmaniyah memperkirakan ada 300.000 penipu. Di Anatolia abad ke-18, hampir semua orang di kota besar di kelas atas mengaku dirinya sebagai keturunan Muhammad.

Keturunan campuran

Meskipun banyak Sayyid mengklaim bangsawan dan keunggulan karena garis keturunan mereka dengan Nabi Muhammad, kebanyakan Sayyid hanya dapat mengklaim keturunan melalui ayah. Orang Sayyid sering menikah dengan orang Arab yang bukan Sayyid dan bahkan orang yang bukan Arab sama sekali sehingga mereka memiliki sangat sedikit jejak genetik Nabi Muhammad. Tidak mengherankan, sebagian besar Sayyid, seperti Ba’Alawi di Asia Tenggara, bertampang campuran Asia dan Arab atau sepenuhnya Asia. Berikut adalah beberapa Sayyid Ba’Alawi yang terkenal menurut yang bermuka Indonesia atau campuran Arab dan Indonesia.

Abdullah bin Alwi Alatas
Drs. Kyai Hajji Habib Ali Alwi bin Thohir Al Husainy 
Politisi Indonesia
Habib Bahar bin Smith 
Pengkhotbah Indonesia
Fadel Muhammad Alhaddar
Mantan menteri kelautan dan perikanan Indonesia
Husein Aidid
Penulis lagu Indonesia
Mahdi Fahri Albaar
Pemain Sepakbola Indonesia
Mahmud Badaruddin II
Sultan Kesultanan Palembang, Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia
Raden Saleh
Pelukis terkenal di Hindia Belanda
Radin Inten II
Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia
Syarif Kasim II of Siak
Sultan ke-12 Kesultanan Siak Sri Indrapura
Umay Shahab
Aktor Indonesia

Keunggulan Sayyid

Kebanyakan Muslim menganggap Nabi Muhammad lebih unggul dari semua nabi lainnya. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan fakta bahwa hampir setiap masjid di dunia memiliki dua nama yang diletakkan berdampingan di dindingnya, yaitu nama “Muhammad” dan “Allah” (bahasa Arab untuk “Tuhan”). Sangat jarang Anda akan melihat nama-nama nabi lain seperti Ibrahim, Musa dan Yesus. Yang menarik, nama Muhammad sering berukuran sama dan tingginya sama dengan nama Tuhan, seolah-olah menunjukkan bahwa Muhammad sederajat dengan Tuhan, walaupun itu jelas-jelas bertentangan dengan keyakinan dasar Islam, tapi itu masalah yang berbeda dari topik artikel ini.

Masjid Hagia Sofia di Istanbul, Turki menunjukkan nama “Muhammad” di kiri dan “Allah” (Tuhan) di kanan.

Dengan meyakini keunggulan Muhammad, sebagian keturunan Nabi Muhammad dan bahkan Muslim lainnya menganggap Sayyid sebagai orang yang mulia yang agak lebih unggul dari orang lain. Misalnya, di kekaisaran Ottoman, pengecualian pembayaran pajak diberikan kepada orang Sayyid. Di Indonesia, banyak pelajar Islam pribumi Indonesia akan sujud dan mencium tangan Sayyid bahkan jika orang Sayyid itu seorang Muslim yang tidak mempraktekkan ibadah Islam.

Bukti lebih lanjut bahwa Sayyid menganggap diri mereka sebagai kelompok yang lebih unggul berasal dari pilihan mereka dalam pasangan nikah (atau pilihan pasangan nikah oleh orang tua untuk anak-anak mereka).

Di India, keluarga Sayyid tradisional jarang menikah di luar komunitas mereka dan menekankan pernikahan dengan Najeeb Altarfain (keturunan Sayyid dari sisi ibu dan ayah). Namun, tekanan endogami (pernikahan dalam suatu kaum) ini mulai menurun di antara keluarga-keluarga yang di kota-kota besar, dengan peningkatan eksogami (pernikahan diluar suatu kaum) dengan kelompok lain seperti Syaikh dan Mughal.

Di Indonesia sendiri saya tahu bahwa banyak Sayyid Ba’Alawi yang ngotot menikahi Sayyid Ba’Alawi lainnya, apalagi kalau orang Sayyid itu perempuan karena garis keturunannya diambil dari ayah, bukan ibu. Ironisnya, Nabi Muhammad sendiri tidak memiliki anak laki-laki, hanya seorang anak perempuan, namun banyak Sayyid menggunakan garis keturunan patrilineal (dari ayah) dalam silsilah keluarga mereka yang menghubungkan mereka dengan nabi.


Untuk melanjutkan keturunan patrilineal mereka kepada nabi Muhammad dan rasa kebangsawanan dan keunggulan anak-anak mereka, orang Sayyid perempuan harus menikah dengan Sayyid lain. Sayangnya, menikahi seseorang berdasarkan nama keluarga dan bukan karena kecocokan cenderung berakhir dengan kekecewaan dan/atau perceraian. 

Perempuan Sayyid menikahi laki-laki Sayyid

Dalam satu contoh, seorang Sayyid Ba’alawi perempuan yang saya kenal menikah dengan laki-laki Sayyid Ba’alawi yang ternyata bersifat keras dan bahkan mengancam akan membunuhnya. Itu jelas bukan perilaku yang mulia atau perilaku Nabi Muhammad.

Dalam contoh lain, seorang perempuan Ba’alawi Sayyid menikah dengan laki-laki Ba’alawi Sayyid yang adalah sepupunya. Pria itu kemudian menikah dengan wanita lain keturunan Arab tapi bukan Ba’Alawi sehingga memiliki dua istri. Istri pertama menolak pernikahan kedua dan melarikan diri. Lama lama, istri kedua menceraikan suaminya. Istri pertama, yang tidak pernah bekerja, bergantung pada suaminya sehingga akhirnya dia kembali kepadanya. Sekarang, mereka tinggal bersama tetapi tidur di kamar terpisah dan tidak berbicara satu sama lain.

Dalam contoh lain, seorang perempuan Ba’alawi Sayyid yang saya kenal menikah dengan Sayyid Ba’alawi tanpa mereka pernah bertemu secara langsung sebelum hari pernikahan mereka. Bahkan ada dukungan dan tekanan untuk pernikahan ini dari kedua keluarga seolah-olah pernikahan antara dua Sayyid adalah jaminan kesuksesan dan kebahagiaan. Maka tidak mengherankan bahwa pernikahan ini berakhir dengan perceraian setelah 10 tahun. Perempuan itu sekarang berusia 40an, tidak punya anak meski ingin punya anak, dan merasa sulit untuk menikah lagi.

Seorang perempuan Arab non-Sayyid menikah dengan laki-laki Sayyid

Beberapa perempuan non-Sayyid mungkin merasa bangga menikah dengan pria Sayyid supaya anak mereka dapat menjadi Sayyid. Meskipun orang Sayyid mungkin menganggap diri mereka superior, mereka sebenarnya hanyalah orang biasa. Seperti orang lain, ada orang Sayyid yang baik dan ada yang buruk. Saya kenal sama seorang wanita non-Sayyid yang menikahi dua Sayyid Ba’alawi. Dia menceraikan suami pertama setelah satu minggu dan menceraikan suami kedua setelah dapat 6 anak. Dia tidak pernah menikah lagi. Meskipun dia mungkin merasa bangga bahwa anak-anaknya adalah Sayyid dari pihak ayah, dia mungkin lebih kecewa karena pernikahannya gagal.

Seorang perempuan Sayyid menikah dengan laki-laki non-Arab, non-Sayyid

Kadang-kadang, seorang perempuan Sayyid menikah dengan non-Arab non-Sayyid. Ini terjadi pada saudara perempuan teman Ba’alawi Sayyid saya. Dia ingin menikah dengan orang Indonesia pribumi. Karena pernikahan ini tidak dapat diterima oleh keluarganya perempuan, sayangnya hanya sedikit orang yang menghadiri pernikahan dari pihak Sayyid. Mayoritas tamu pernikahan itu dari pihak pengantin pria.

Laki-laki Sayyid menikahi perempuan non-Arab dan non-Sayyid

Ada juga kasus di mana orang tua Sayyid memaksa anak laki-laki mereka menikah dengan perempuan Sayyid tetapi anak laki-laki mereka tidak mau. Dalam satu kasus, tiga saudara laki-laki Ba’alawi Sayyid masing-masing menikah dengan non-Sayyid yang berasal dari Mongolia, Jepang dan Indonesia. Meskipun orang tua mereka merasa sedih atau malu, putra mereka tampaknya bahagia dalam perkawinannya.

Situs web perjodohan perkawinan

Beberapa situs web perjodohan perkawinan bahkan memiliki kategori bagi orang-orang untuk mencari pria dan wanita Sayyid (Syed) seperti yang ini di India.

Ada profil orang yang tertulis bahwa mereka hanya mau untuk menikahi Sayyid lain. Dalam beberapa contoh, orang tua dapat membuat profil untuk putra atau putri mereka yang menyatakan bahwa mereka adalah orang Sayyid dan secara ketat mencari pasangan Sayyid saja dengan kata-kata seperti “Non-Sayyid tidak usah menghubungi kita dan membuang waktu kita.”

Tidak mengherankan, setelah beberapa generasi pernikahan antar ras, Sayyid yang mengidentifikasi dirinya di situs web ini terlihat seperti orang India pribumi, bukan Arab atau campuran Arab dan India.

Screenshot profil Sayyid di situs web perkawinan India

Di situs perjodohan perkawinan India lain, orang dapat memilih salah satu dari banyak, banyak “kasta”, salah satu diantaranya adalah “Muslim – Syed”.

Yang menarik (dan menyedihkan) adalah banyaknya kelompok di bawah kategori Muslim. Di situs web ini, seseorang dapat mencari dari salah satu kelompok Muslim berikut. Rupanya beberapa orang – mungkin banyak – merasa bahwa pembagian kategori “Muslim” ini penting tanpa menyadari bahwa pembagian ini hanya akan semakin memecah belah umat Islam daripada mempersatukan mereka. Selain itu, membatasi pilihan seseorang ketika mencari pasangan itu sangat membatasi potensi seseorang untuk mendapat pernikahan yang bahagia.

  • Muslim
  • Muslim – Ansari
  • Muslim – Arain
  • Muslim – Awan
  • Muslim – Bohra
  • Muslim – Dekkani
  • Muslim – Dudekula
  • Muslim – Hanafi
  • Muslim – Jat
  • Muslim – Khoja
  • Muslim – Lebbai
  • Muslim – Malik
  • Muslim – Mapila
  • Muslim – Maraicar
  • Muslim – Memon
  • Muslim – Mughal
  • Muslim – Pathan
  • Muslim – Qureshi
  • Muslim – Rajput
  • Muslim – Rowther
  • Muslim – Shafi
  • Muslim – Sheikh
  • Muslim – Siddiqui
  • Muslim – Syed
  • Muslim – UnSpecified

Sebagai seorang Muslim Amerika, saya tidak tahu ada kelompok-kelompok Muslim ini dan hanya minggu lalu saya dapat tahu tentang kelompok “Syed”. Dengan kata lain, untuk orang luar, tidak ada kelompok yang penting kecuali yang semua orang tahu, yaitu “Muslim”.

Bagaimana dengan Keturunan Nabi Lain?

Semua nabi dan rasul Islam derajatnya sama

Semua Muslim percaya bahwa ada banyak nabi Islam selain Muhammad. Beberapa nabi lebih terkenal dari yang lain, misalnya Adam, Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, dan Yesus. Sayangnya, Muslim, baik Sayyid maupun non-Sayyid, secara keliru percaya bahwa Muhammad lebih tinggi derajatnya dari semua nabi lainnya. Sebenarnya, tidak ada perbedaan yang boleh dibuat antara nabi dan rasul Tuhan. Ini terbukti dalam ayat-ayat berikut.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
Katakanlah: Kami percaya pada Allah dan apa yang telah diwahyukan kepada kita, dan apa yang diwahyukan kepada Ibrahim dan Ismail dan Ishak dan Yakub dan suku-suku, dan apa yang diberikan kepada Musa dan Yesus, dan apa yang diberikan kepada para nabi dari Tuhan mereka, kami tidak membuat perbedaan apapun di antara mereka (nabi), dan kami adalah Muslim kepada-Nya. (2:136)
ءَامَنَ ٱلرَّسُولُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِۦ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَمَلَـٰٓئِكَتِهِۦ وَكُتُبِهِۦ وَرُسُلِهِۦ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّن رُّسُلِهِۦ ۚ وَقَالُوا۟ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ ٱلْمَصِيرُ
Rasul (Muhammad) telah percaya pada apa yang diturunkan kepadanya dari Tuhannya, dan [begitu juga] orang mukmin (orang yang percaya / beriman). Mereka semua percaya pada Tuhan dan malaikat-Nya dan buku-buku-Nya dan para rasul-Nya, [dan berkata], “Kami tidak membedakan antara rasul-rasul-Nya.” Dan mereka berkata, “Kami mendengar dan kami taat. [Kami mencari] pengampunan-Mu, Tuhan kami, dan bagi-Mu adalah tujuan [akhir].” (2:285)
قُلْ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَىٰٓ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَإِسْمَـٰعِيلَ وَإِسْحَـٰقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَٱلْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَآ أُوتِىَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَٱلنَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُۥ مُسْلِمُونَ
Katakanlah, “Kami telah percaya pada Tuhan dan apa yang telah diturunkan kepada kami dan apa yang diturunkan kepada Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishak, Yakub, dan Keturunan [al-Asbat], dan dalam apa yang diberikan kepada Musa dan Yesus dan kepada para nabi dari Tuhan mereka. Kami tidak membuat perbedaan di antara mereka (nabi-nabi), dan kami adalah Muslim kepada-Nya. ” (3:84)

Ayat 4:152 menunjukkan bahwa Tuhan akan memberi hadiah kepada orang-orang mukmin yang tidak membeda-bedakan antara rasul siapapun. Ini berarti bahwa orang beriman, termasuk Sayyid, yang menganggap Nabi Muhammad lebih tinggi dari nabi dan rasul lainnya tidak akan diberi hadiah dari Tuhan.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا۟ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍۢ مِّنْهُمْ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًۭا رَّحِيمًۭا
Dan mereka yang percaya pada Tuhan dan rasul-Nya dan tidak membeda-bedakan antara mereka (rasul-rasul) – bagi mereka Dia akan memberikan hadiah. Dan selalu Tuhan adalah Pengampun dan Penyayang. (4:152)

Sekarang telah terbukti bahwa

  • semua nabi dan rasul adalah sama (derajatnya sama)
  • Muslim tidak diperbolehkan untuk melihat nabi dan rasul memiliki derajat lain lain
  • Muhammad tidak lebih tinggi derajatnya dari nabi dan rasul lainnya

Mari kita lihat apa yang Alquran katakan tentang beberapa keturunan dari nabi lainnya.

Sebagian dari keturunan nabi Ibrahim adalah orang yang salah

Dalam ayat 2:124, kita melihat bukti bahwa tidak semua keturunan nabi Ibrahim benar. Tuhan mengakui bahwa sebagiannya salah meskipun mereka keturunan nabi Ibrahim.

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ
Dan [sebutkan, ya Muhammad], ketika Ibrahim diuji oleh Tuhan dengan perintah dan dia memenuhi perintah itu. [Tuhan] berkata, “Sungguh, Aku akan menjadikanmu seorang pemimpin bagi rakyat.” [Ibrahim] berkata, “Dan keturunan saya?” [Tuhan] berkata, “Perjanjian saya tidak mencakup orang-orang yang melakukan kesalahan.” (2:124)

Dalam ayat 37:112-113 kita melihat bahwa nabi Ibrahim diberkahi dengan putra bernama Ishak tetapi sebagian dari keturunan mereka adalah orang berdosa yang tidak benar.

وَبَشَّرْنَـٰهُ بِإِسْحَـٰقَ نَبِيًّۭا مِّنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ وَبَـٰرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَىٰٓ إِسْحَـٰقَ ۚ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا مُحْسِنٌۭ وَظَالِمٌۭ لِّنَفْسِهِۦ مُبِينٌۭ
Dan Kami beri dia [Ibrahim] kabar baik (merupakan anak yang namanya) Ishak, seorang nabi dari orang-orang yang benar. Dan Kami memberkahi dia dan Ishak. Tapi di antara keturunan mereka ada orang-orang pelaku kebenaran dan orang-orang yang jelas merusak dirinya sendiri [yaitu, orang berdosa]. (37:112-113)

Dalam ayat 11:1-18, kita melihat bukti bahwa semua anak Nabi Yakub tidak benar kecuali satu. Mereka mencoba membunuh saudara mereka, Yusuf, dengan melemparkannya ke dalam sumur. Yusuf kemudian menjadi seorang nabi.

Dalam ayat 11:46 kita melihat bukti bahwa keturunan langsung nabi Nuh (salah satu putranya) tidak benar.

قَالَ يَـٰنُوحُ إِنَّهُۥ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ عَمَلٌ غَيْرُ صَـٰلِحٍۢ ۖ فَلَا تَسْـَٔلْنِ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِۦ عِلْمٌ ۖ إِنِّىٓ أَعِظُكَ أَن تَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلْجَـٰهِلِينَ
Dia [Allah] berkata, “Wahai Nuh, memang dia (anak Anda) bukan dari keluarga Anda, (karena) memang ia adalah [orang yang] kelakuannya tidak benar / saleh, maka jangan berdoa kepada-Ku (untuknya) apa yang kamu tidak ketahui. Sesungguhnya, Aku menasihati kamu, jangan sampai kamu termasuk orang yang tidak peduli sama kenyataan.” (11:46)

Perhatikan bahwa dalam ayat di atas, Tuhan memberi tahu Nuh bahwa

  1. Salah satu putranya Nuh tidak benar / saleh
  2. Nuh tidak boleh menganggap putranya yang tidak benar itu sebagai anggota keluarganya
  3. Nuh seharusnya tidak meminta (berdoa kepada) Tuhan untuk membantu (mengampuni) putranya

Dalam ayat 57:26 kita melihat bukti jelas bahwa banyak (bukan “beberapa”, tapi “banyak”) dari keturunan nabi Nuh dan Ibrahim adalah pelaku kesalahan (“bersifat keras untuk tidak taat”). Kata “banyak” yang digunakan dalam ayat ini adalah “katheer” / كَثِيرٌۭ dalam bahasa Arab yang jelas berarti “banyak”.

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًۭا وَإِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا ٱلنُّبُوَّةَ وَٱلْكِتَـٰبَ ۖ فَمِنْهُم مُّهْتَدٍۢ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌۭ مِّنْهُمْ فَـٰسِقُونَ
Dan Kami telah mengutus Nuh dan Ibrahim dan menempatkan di keturunan mereka kenabian dan kitab suci; dan di antara mereka adalah dia yang dapat petunjuk (hidayah), tetapi banyak dari mereka yang tidak taat. (57:26)

Ada kemungkinan bahwa ayat ini bicara tentang orang-orang yang tinggal di masyarakatnya keturunan Nuh dan Ibrahim tetapi, menurut kata-kata dalam ayat-ayat di atas, kemungkinan besar ayat ini bermaksud bahwa yang banyak melakukan kesalahan adalah keturunan nabi Nuh dan Ibrahim.

Bagaimana dengan Keturunan Nabi Musa dan Yesus?

Menurut Alquran, Musa dan Yesus adalah nabi dalam Islam. Mereka adalah dua nabi yang sering disebutkan dalam Alquran. Alquran menyebut pengikut mereka Ahli Kitab (Arab: Ahl Al-Kitaab) karena mereka adalah pengikut kitab suci, Taurat Yahudi. Orang Yahudi dan Kristen menghormati Musa dan Yesus sama seperti pengikut Alquran menghormati Muhammad. Tetapi, Yahudi dan Kristen memiliki sikap yang berbeda terhadap keturunan nabi-nabi tersebut.

Keturunan Nabi Yesus

Dalam kasus Yesus, tidak ada masalah karena dia tidak memiliki keturunan.

Keturunan Nabi Musa

Dalam kasus Musa, dia memiliki dua putra, Gersom dan Eliezer. Tapi, ketika tiba waktunya untuk memilih pengganti Musa, orang bijak Yahudi berkata bahwa Musa meminta salah satu putranya diangkat. Tapi, Tuhan menjawab dengan, “Anak-anakmu duduk dan tidak menyibukkan diri dengan Taurat. Yosua, yang melayani Anda, cocok untuk melayani Israel. ” Jadi, Yosua, bukan putra Musa, menjadi pemimpin suku-suku Israel setelah kematian Musa (Deuteronomy 31:1–8; 34:9).

Musa memiliki seorang kakak laki-laki, Harun, yang memiliki empat putra. Meskipun putra-putra Musa tidak mengikuti tradisi Musa, putra-putra Harun memang membawa tradisi luhur ayah mereka. Tuhan menganggap keponakan Musa (anak-anak Harun) sebagai anak-anak Musa, karena Musa-lah yang mengajari mereka Taurat. Ini tercermin dalam ayat Numbers 3:1 yang dimulai dengan “Ini adalah keturunan Musa dan Harun…” tetapi hanya mencantumkan keempat putra Harun. Tuhan meyakinkan Musa bahwa bahkan Yosua pun perlu berunding dengan putra Harun, Imam Besar, untuk mengetahui kehendak Tuhan.

Meskipun Musa memiliki dua putra, mereka tidak istimewa dan orang Yahudi tidak menganggap keturunan Musa lebih istimewa dari siapa pun. Mungkin orang Muslim bisa mendapat pelajaran dari sikap benar ini dari orang-orang Yahudi.

Bagaimana dengan Istri Para Nabi?

Banyak Muslim percaya bahwa istri-istri Nabi Muhammad adalah wanita-wanita yang superior dan saleh. Karena telah dibuktikan di atas bahwa semua nabi dan rasul adalah sederajat, maka orang mungkin juga berpikir bahwa istri dari nabi dan rasul lainnya juga lebih tinggi dan saleh. Mari kita lihat apa yang Quran katakan tentang ini.

Dalam ayat 66:10 kita melihat bukti bahwa meskipun nabi Nuh dan Lut adalah hamba Tuhan yang benar / saleh, istri mereka adalah orang berdosa dan dikirim ke Neraka. Ayat ini juga membuktikan bahwa nabi yang saleh tidak memiliki kuasa untuk menyelamatkan istri mereka yang berdosa dari Neraka.

ضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلًۭا لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ٱمْرَأَتَ نُوحٍۢ وَٱمْرَأَتَ لُوطٍۢ ۖ كَانَتَا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَـٰلِحَيْنِ فَخَانَتَاهُمَا فَلَمْ يُغْنِيَا عَنْهُمَا مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًۭٔا وَقِيلَ ٱدْخُلَا ٱلنَّارَ مَعَ ٱلدَّٰخِلِينَ
Allah memberi contoh orang-orang kafir: istri Nuh dan istri Lut. Mereka berada di bawah dua hamba Kami yang benar / saleh tetapi mengkhianati mereka, mereka [yaitu, para nabi itu] sama sekali tidak memanfaatkan (dapat menyelamatkan) (istri-istri) mereka dari Tuhan, dan dikatakan (kepada istri-istri mereka), “Masuki Api bersama mereka yang masuk.” (66:10)

Dalam ayat 33:30 kita membaca bahwa jika ada istri nabi Muhammad yang melakukan dosa, maka hukuman mereka akan menjadi dua kali lipat dari orang lain.

يَـٰنِسَآءَ ٱلنَّبِىِّ مَن يَأْتِ مِنكُنَّ بِفَـٰحِشَةٍۢ مُّبَيِّنَةٍۢ يُضَـٰعَفْ لَهَا ٱلْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرًۭا
Ya istri-istri Nabi, siapa pun dari Anda yang melakukan suatu perbuatan amoral – untuk dia hukumannya akan menjadi dua kali lipat, dan (hukuman) itu, buat Allah, mudah dilakukan. (33:30)

Menurut ayat di atas, menjadi jelas bahwa bersaudara dengan nabi Muhammad tidak mengecualikan mereka untuk melakukan kebenaran dan tidak menjamin mereka masuk surga.

Syafaat oleh Nabi Muhammad

Beberapa Sayyid percaya bahwa keturunan mereka kepada Nabi Muhammad akan membantu mereka mendapatkan akses ke surga dengan cara Nabi Muhammad menjadi perantara (syafaat) atas nama mereka di akhirat. Keyakinan ini sangat berbahaya karena memberi rasa aman yang palsu. Menurut ayat 2:123, tidak ada seorang pun, termasuk nabi Muhammad, yang memiliki kemampuan untuk menjadi perantara atas nama siapa pun pada hari itu.

وَٱتَّقُوا۟ يَوْمًۭا لَّا تَجْزِى نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍۢ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌۭ وَلَا تَنفَعُهَا شَفَـٰعَةٌۭ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ
Dan takutlah pada suatu Hari (Hari Keadilan / Pembalasan) bila tidak ada jiwa dapat membantu jiwa lain sama sekali, dan tidak ada kompensasi yang akan diterima darinya, juga tidak akan ada perantaraan yang menguntungkannya, juga mereka tidak akan dibantu. (2:123)

Ayat di atas membuktikan bahwa dalam urusan agama, setiap orang bertanggung jawab atas dirinya sendiri, dan tidak ada leluhur, tidak peduli seberapa terkenal atau mulia mereka, baik mereka meninggal kemarin atau 1400 tahun yang lalu, dapat bermanfaat bagi siapa pun, termasuk keturunannya.

Membandingkan Sayyid dengan Kelompok Lain

Jelas, Sayyid bukanlah satu-satunya orang yang berpikir bahwa mereka lebih unggul dari orang lain. Berikut adalah beberapa contoh kelompok orang lain yang juga memiliki perasaan unggul karena keturunannya.


Sistem kasta Hindu membagi umat Hindu menjadi empat kategori utama – Brahmana, Ksatria, Waisya dan Sudra. Banyak yang percaya bahwa kelompok tersebut berasal dari Brahma, Dewa Pencipta Hindu. Di luar sistem kasta Hindu ini adalah orang-orang achhoots – Dalit atau Untouchables (orang yang tak tersentuh). Dalam sistem ini, semakin tinggi kasta Anda, semakin tinggi pula derajat Anda.

Hierarki kasta Hindu

Perhatikan bahwa, seperti untuk orang Sayyid, sistem kepercayaan Hindu ini didasarkan atas kelahiran – tidak ada yang dapat berpindah dari satu kelompok ke kelompok lain, baik naik derajat maupun turun. Dari sudut pandang seorang Hindu dari kasta tinggi, seorang Sayyid Muslim dapat dianggap lebih rendah dari mereka. Salah satu konsekuensi dari sistem kasta Hindu yang sangat tidak adil ini adalah konversi banyak Dalit ke Islam dengan harapan bisa lepas dari diskriminasi. Sayangnya, menurut artikel BBC Mengapa banyak Muslim India dipandang tak tersentuh?, bahkan Muslim dari kasta tinggi akan mendiskriminasi orang Dalit yang telah masuk Islam.

Orang-orang Dalit dianggap tidak murni oleh kasta Hindu dan banyak dari mereka bekerja di bidang sanitasi.

Seorang pekerja sanitasi Dalit

Meskipun konstitusi India melarang diskriminasi atas dasar kasta, diskriminasi berdasarkan kasta masih banyak terjadi.

Keunggulan orang putih (White Supremacy)

Kelompok “Keunggulan Orang Putih” percaya bahwa orang kulit putih merupakan ras yang unggul dan oleh karena itu harus mendominasi masyarakat, biasanya dengan mengesampingkan atau merugikan kelompok ras dan etnis lain, khususnya orang kulit hitam yang berasal dari Afrika atau Yahudi. Beberapa anggota kelompok ini berpendapat bahwa darah mereka “murni” atau bahwa mereka memiliki keturunan “murni” dari orang kulit putih Eropa. Tidak jarang seorang anggota kelompok ini berpikir bahwa mereka berketurunan orang Eropa murni tetapi setelah mereka mengambil tes genetik, ternyata mereka memiliki keturunan campuran dengan orang bukan Eropa.

Oops! That’s embarrassing.

Misalnya, banyak orang kulit putih mungkin terlihat seperti orang kaukasia tetapi sebenarnya memiliki keturunan campuran pribumi Amerika atau Meksiko. Kenyataan yang pasti mengejutkan ini membuat beberapa orang menolak begitu saja hasil tes genetik supaya mereka dapat melanjutkan perasaan superior mereka.

Walaupun hukum di Amerika Serikat melarang diskriminasi karena ras, warna kulit, agama, asal kebangsaan, jenis kelamin, umur, dan lain lain, masih banyak diskriminasi ditemukan di masyarakat.

Contoh-contoh lain

Jika dipikir-pikir, rasisme dan orang-orang yang memiliki sikap superioritas ada di semua lapisan masyarakat. Beberapa contoh adalah:

  • Orang yang tinggal di kota mungkin berpikir mereka lebih unggul daripada orang yang tinggal di daerah pedesaan
  • Orang kaya mungkin berpikir mereka lebih unggul dari orang miskin
  • Orang India atau Afrika berkulit putih mungkin berpikir mereka lebih unggul dari orang India atau Afrika berkulit gelap (produk pemutih kulit adalah bisnis besar di India dan Afrika)
  • Orang berpendidikan mungkin merasa lebih unggul dari orang yang tidak berpendidikan
  • Orang yang memiliki rumah mungkin merasa lebih unggul daripada orang yang menyewa rumah
  • Orang yang memiliki mobil mungkin merasa lebih unggul daripada orang yang harus naik angkutan umum
  • Seorang Amerika, yang lahir dan tinggal di negara terkaya dan terkuat di dunia, mungkin merasa lebih unggul dari semua orang yang bukan dari Amerika.

Kebanyakan Sayyid akan percaya bahwa sistem kasta Hindu, supremasi orang kulit putih, dan contoh-contoh lain di atas keterlaluan dan sama sekali tidak dapat diterima. Ironisnya, cara berpikir banyak orang Sayyid tidak berbeda dengan kelompok lain yang mengklaim keunggulan.

Oops! That’s embarrassing.


Dalam Quran, Surah al-Ahzab (33), Ayat 56 kita membaca bahwa Tuhan dan Malaikat-Nya mengirim salawaat (berkah) kepada Muhammad dan Tuhan memerintahkan orang-orang beriman untuk mengirim salawaat ke Muhammad juga.

إِنَّ ٱل‍لَّٰهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَىٰ ٱلنَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا۟ صَلُّوا۟ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا۟ تَسْلِيمًا
“Allah dan Malaikat-Nya memberi salawaat pada Nabi (Muhammad). Hai orang yang beriman! (Ucapkan) salawaat Anda pada dia, dan beri hormat kepadanya.”

Kata Salawaat adalah bentuk jamak dari kata salat yang berarti doa, berkah atau penghargaan. Beberapa Sayyid berpikir bahwa karena Tuhan dan Malaikat-Nya mengirimkan salawaat kepada nabi Muhammad, maka Muhammad harus lebih unggul dari semua nabi lainnya dan lebih jauh lagi, keturunan Muhammad ikut lebih unggul dari orang-orang lain. Mereka dapat dengan mudah dibuktikan salah dengan membaca beberapa ayat sebelum ayat di atas. Dalam Al-Qur’an Surah al-Ahzab (33), Ayat 41-43 kita menemukan bahwa Tuhan dan Malaikat-Nya mengirimkan salawaat kepada SEMUA orang yang beriman.

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ذِكْرًۭا كَثِيرًۭا وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةًۭ وَأَصِيلًا هُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُصَلِّى عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَـٰٓئِكَتُهُۥ لِيُخْرِجَكُم مِّنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ ۚ وَكَانَ بِٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًۭا
Hai orang-orang yang beriman, ingatlah Allah dengan banyak ingatan (zikir). Dan muliakan Dia pagi dan sore. Dialah yang memberi salawaat kepada Anda (orang-orang yang beriman), dan para malaikat-Nya [memberi salawaat juga] sehingga Dia dapat membawa Anda keluar dari kegelapan menuju keterangan. Dan selalu Dia, bagi orang yang beriman, Penyayang.

Ketika orang Muslim sembahyang, mereka membaca salawaat menjelang akhir shalat. Biasanya ucapannya sebagai berikut:

ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ ٱللَّٰهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
Allah, kirimlah salawaat pada Muhammad dan keluarga Muhammad, sebagaimana Anda telah mengirimkan salawaat untuk Ibrahim dan keluarga Ibrahim. Sungguh, Engkau Terpuji dan Mulia. Allah, berkatilah Muhammad dan keluarga Muhammad, karena Anda telah memberkati Ibrahim dan keluarga Ibrahim. Sungguh, Engkau Terpuji dan Mulia.

Di sini, kita melihat bahwa salawaat dilakukan bukan hanya untuk Muhammad tetapi untuk keluarganya Muhammad juga. Tapi, tidak ada instruksi dalam Al Qur’an bagi orang-orang beriman untuk mengirim salawaat kepada keluarga Muhammad. Seharusnya tidak mengherankan bahwa Islam, seperti banyak agama lain, telah berubah banyak karena politik, tradisi lokal, perang, dll. Itu salah satu sebabnya Islam menjadi bercabang dengan banyak aliran. Oleh karena itu, orang-orang yang berpengaruh, misalnya beberapa Sayyid dahulu kala, mungkin telah memodifikasi ucapan salawaat untuk memasukkan keluarga Muhammad untuk keuntungan pribadi mereka sendiri.

Membagi Umat Muslim

Jika Sayyid percaya bahwa mereka lebih unggul dari orang lain, maka mereka membagi umat Muslim. Menurut ayat 6:159, pikiran ini bukan hanya tidak dapat diterima, tetapi Tuhan bahkan mengatakan kepada Muhammad bahwa Muhammad tidak ada hubungannya dengan mereka. 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ
Sesungguhnya, orang-orang yang telah membagi agama mereka dan menjadi sekte – Anda, [Ya Muhammad], tidak [terkait] dengan mereka dalam apapun. Urusan mereka untuk Tuhan; kemudian Dia akan memberi tahu mereka tentang (kesalahan) apa yang mereka lakukan. (6:159)

Ironisnya, orang-orang Sayyid menggunakan hubungannya dengan Muhammad untuk membenarkan rasa superioritas mereka yang membagi umat Islam sedangkan Tuhan mengatakan bahwa Muhammad tidak ada hubungannya dengan orang-orang Sayyid justru karena sebab itu. 

Oops! That’s embarrassing.

Setan (Bapak Kesombongan) dan Sayyid

Ironisnya, para Sayyid Muslim yang percaya bahwa mereka lebih unggul dari orang lain ternyata berperilaku seperti Setan sendiri. Menurut Alquran, Setan (jin) merasa lebih unggul dari Adam (manusia) karena Setan dibuat dari api tanpa asap sedangkan Adam terbuat dari tanah liat.

Api tanpa asap dan tanah liat

Jelas, perbedaan biologis Setan dengan Adam jauh lebih jelas daripada perbedaan genetik yang tidak terlihat antara Sayyid dan non-Sayyid. Kita semua (orang-orang Yahudi, Kristen dan Muslim) tahu bagaimana ceritanya berakhir. Kesombongan dan kompleks superioritas setan akan membawanya ke Neraka untuk selamanya.

Keturunan Adam – Nabi Pertama Islam

Kebanyakan orang lebih menghormati pendiri atau pemula sesuatu, misalnya pendiri atau pemula agama, negara, revolusi, suatu gerakan, perusahaan yang sangat sukses, dll, daripada pemimpin berikutnya. Inilah salah satu sebab mengapa kebanyakan Muslim sangat menghormati Nabi Muhammad – mereka berpikir bahwa Muhammad adalah Muslim pertama dan pendiri Islam. Yang memalukan bagi mereka, dapat dengan mudah dibuktikan dengan Al-Qur’an bahwa Muhammad bukanlah Muslim dan nabi Islam pertama dan bahwa dia adalah nabi terakhir dari rantai panjang nabi. Dalam ayat 16:123, Tuhan secara khusus menyuruh Muhammad untuk mengikuti agamanya Nabi Ibrahim.

ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
Kemudian Kami [Allah] mewahyukan kepada Anda, [ya Muhammad], untuk mengikuti agama (bahasa Arab: millat) Ibrahim, menuju kebenaran; dan dia (Ibrahim) bukan seperti mereka yang syirik. (16:123)

Daripada berfokus pada Muhammad, nabi terakhir Islam, bagaimana jika umat Islam berfokus pada Adam, nabi pertama Islam? Meskipun Quran tidak secara harfiah menyebutkan bahwa Adam adalah seorang nabi atau rasul Islam, kenabiannya jelas tersirat dalam ayat 3:33 di mana ia disebut sederajat dengan nabi Nuh, Ibrahim dan Imran.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱصْطَفَىٰٓ ءَادَمَ وَنُوحًۭا وَءَالَ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَءَالَ عِمْرَٰنَ عَلَى ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
Sesungguhnya, Tuhan memilih Adam dan Nuh dan keluarga Ibrahim dan keluarga Imran atas alam semesta – (3:33)

Nabi Adam bukan hanya pendiri dan nabi pertama Islam tetapi juga pendiri umat manusia (setiap orang adalah keturunan Adam). Tidak ada silsilah keluarga yang dibutuhkan untuk membuktikan keturunan seseorang dari Adam. Akibatnya, setiap orang setara dalam hal keturunan bangsawan dan tidak ada yang bisa mengklaim keunggulan berdasarkan garis keturunan yang, seperti dibuktikan di atas, adalah sifat Iblis! Mungkin keturunan Ba’Alawi lebih baik menyebut diri mereka keturunan Ba’Adam, yaitu Bani Adam (keturunan Adam), saja. 

Orang Paling Mulia

Jika kita benar-benar ingin memilih seseorang atau sekelompok orang yang dianggap mulia menurut Islam, maka kita dapat dengan mudah menemukan siapa mereka dari Alquran. Ayat 49:13 menjelaskan bahwa orang yang paling mulia adalah orang yang paling bertaqwa. Dan, jelas ketawqaan itu tidak didasarkan pada kelahiran tetapi tindakan seseorang.

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَـٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍۢ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَـٰكُمْ شُعُوبًۭا وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتْقَىٰكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌۭ
Hai manusia, sesungguhnya Kami telah menciptakan kamu dari laki-laki dan perempuan dan membuat kalian bangsa dan suku yang mungkin kalian kenal satu sama lain. Sesungguhnya, yang paling mulia dari Anda di mata Allah adalah yang paling bertaqwa dari Anda. Sesungguhnya, Allah Maha Mengetahui dan Sadar. (49:13)


Beberapa Sayyid mungkin berpendapat bahwa ada hadits sahih yang mendukung argumen bahwa Nabi Muhammad dan keturunannya lebih unggul dari orang lain. Mereka dianjurkan membaca artikel saya yang membuktikan bahwa hadits bukanlah sumber yang sah dari hukum Islam dan bahwa menggunakan hadits sebagai hukum Islam merupakan bentuk dari kesyirikan dan menyebabkan orang menjadi kafir.

Versi pendek:

Bukti Hadits Tidak Valid Hukum Islam

Versi panjang (bahasa Inggris):


Bukti-bukti Alquran dan argumen logis di atas memperjelas bahwa keturunan Nabi Muhammad tidak lebih unggul sama sekali dibandingkan dengan umat manusia lainnya. Kesimpulan ini sangat jelas di negara-negara Barat non-Islam tetapi sayangnya, banyak orang di negara-negara Islam terlalu cuek dan menolak kesimpulan ini, mungkin karena mereka memiliki sikap bahwa tradisi harus benar meskipun bertentangan dengan logika. Mungkin mereka sebaiknya mundur selangkah dan merenungkan ayat berikut.

إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِندَ اللَّهِ الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
Sesungguhnya, makhluk hidup yang paling buruk di mata Allah adalah orang tuli dan bisu yang tidak menggunakan otaknya untuk berpikir. (8:22)


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Islamic Ablution (Wudhu) Is Simpler Than Many Muslims Think

Do you have to wash your feet in wudhu (ablution) or can you wipe it?

Many Muslims, especially Sunnis, believe that they must wash their feet when performing wudhu. However, the Quran makes it clear that the feet are to be wiped. Consider verse 5:6.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ
O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your hands to the elbows and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles. (5:6)

As you can see, any reasonable person would understand the above verse to indicate that the feet are to be wiped and not necessarily washed. If it were so important for believers to wash their feet instead of wipe them, it would make sense for God to have grouped the feet part of the verse with the face and hand washing part instead of with the head-wiping part. Or, God could have added the word “wash” right before the word “feet” to make it clear that the feet must be washed.

How many steps are there in performing ablution (wudhu)?

Most Muslims think there are more than 4 steps to perform ablution (wudhu). However, the Quran makes it very clear in verse 5:6 that there are exactly 4 steps:

  1. Wash your face
  2. Wash each hand to the elbow
  3. Wipe your head
  4. Wipe each foot to the ankle
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ
O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your hands to the elbows and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles. (5:6)

Some Muslims insist that you must do more such as wash the inside of your mouth, clear your nostrils, wipe your neck, etc. Though it’s probably okay to do these things, one must not say that these additional steps are required since nowhere in the Quran does it require them. Believing that these extra steps are required and telling others that these extra steps are required constitutes belief in an Islamic law that God never approved. Therefore, to be safe and correct, one should not add to the steps clearly specified in the Quran and just stick to the 4 steps. If one feels that they need to wash their mouths or clear their nostrils or wipe their necks, they can do that before performing ablution (wudhu). They can also take a bath or shower before performing ablution (wudhu) as well.

How many times must you perform each step in ablution (wudhu)?

Most Muslims think that they must perform each step of ablution (wudhu) three times as if doing it less or more than three times invalidates the ablution. However, the Quran never mentions a specific number of steps required to perform ablution. Therefore, you are free to perform each step as many times as you want. Also, you are forbidden from telling others that they are required to perform each step a specific number of times since God never required any specific number.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ
O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your hands to the elbows and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles. (5:6)

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Muslims Don’t Need to Perform Ablution (Wudhu) Before Touching the Quran

Many Muslims believe that they must perform ablution (wudu) or be in a “purified” state, e.g. not be menstruating, in order to touch the Quran. However, the Quran never mentions this requirement. Muslims often cite verses 56:77-79 as proof of the requirement to be pure in order to touch the Quran.

إِنَّهُ لَقُرْآنٌ كَرِيمٌ فِي كِتَابٍ مَّكْنُونٍ لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ
Indeed, it is a noble Qur’an, in a book well-protected; None touch it except the purified. (56:77-79)

Statement vs command

The first issue is that many Muslims think that the statement “none touch it except the purified” is a command. Everywhere else in the Quran God gives commands by telling people to either do this or don’t do that. As you can see, the statement “none touch it except the purified” is not a command but rather a statement of fact.

What book is well-protected?

Many people assume that the book that is well-protected mentioned in verse 56:78 above is the Quran. If that were true, then the subsequent verse (56:79) would be invalid since anyone who is impure, however one wants to define impure, could obviously touch a Quran while they are impure. Therefore, the book that is well-protected can’t be the Quran.

In order to determine what book is well-protected, we must examine all verses in the Quran which deal with this subject.

Umm Al-Kitaab (Mother of the Book)

In verses 13:39 and 43:2-4, we find the mention of a book called Umm Al-Kitaab (Mother of the Book).

يَمْحُو اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيُثْبِتُ ۖ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ
Allah eliminates what He wills or confirms, and with Him is the Mother of the Book. (13:39)
وَالْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ وَإِنَّهُ فِي أُمِّ الْكِتَابِ لَدَيْنَا لَعَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌ
By the clear Book, Indeed, We have made it an Arabic Qur’an that you might understand. And indeed it is, in the Mother of the Book with Us, exalted and full of wisdom. (43:2-4)

From the above verses, we find proof that there is a master book called “The Mother of the Book” which is in the presence of God and that the Quran is in it.

Luh-e-Mahfuz / Guarded / Protected Tablet

In verses 85:21-22, we see mention of a protected tablet (Luh-e Mahfuuz).

بَلْ هُوَ قُرْآنٌ مَّجِيدٌ فِي لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ
But this is an honored Qur’an. [Inscribed] in a guarded tablet. (85:21-22)

Based on these verses, it becomes clear that there is another book or tablet which serves as a master source that is with God and cannot be corrupted. All messages and scriptures have emanated from this master book.

Correct meaning of 56:77-79

Now that we know about the mother of the book and that the Quran came from it, if we revisit verses 56:77-79, we find that the book that is well-protected that only the “purified” can touch must mean the Mother of the Book that is with God Himself.

إِنَّهُ لَقُرْآنٌ كَرِيمٌ فِي كِتَابٍ مَّكْنُونٍ لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ
Indeed, it is a noble Qur’an, in a book (a separate book called the Mother Book or Guarded Tablet) well-protected; None touch it except the purified. (56:77-79)

Isn’t the Quran also protected?

Using verse 15:9, many Muslims believe that the Quran is well-protected.

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ
Indeed, it is We who sent down the reminder (Arabic: dhikr) and indeed, We will be its guardian (Arabic: haafizhun). (15:9)

Some Quran translations translated the word “dhikr” as “Quran” when it actually means “reminder.” ‘Dhikr’ in Arabic means to remember, to recollect, to remind, to preserve something in memory. Therefore, this verse states that the “remembrance” of the Quran will be protected. This is understandable as we know that the Quran has always been memorized in its oral transmission. Though there are slight differences between Hafs and Warsh transmissions of the Quran, the differences are insignificant with regard to the message of the Quran. The Quran was never revealed as a physical book but rather as an oral narration that was later written down. In verse 36:69, we see proof that the Quran was not only recited from memory at the time of the prophet as a reminder (dhikr) but its physical form as a written book also existed at the same time.

وَمَا عَلَّمْنَاهُ الشِّعْرَ وَمَا يَنبَغِي لَهُ ۚ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرٌ وَقُرْآنٌ مُّبِينٌ
And We did not give Prophet Muhammad knowledge of poetry, nor is it befitting for him. It is not but a reminder (Arabic: dhikr) and a clear Qur’an. (36:69)


Based on the above analysis, we see proof that verses 56:77-79 do not mean that one must perform ablution or not be menstruating in order to touch the Quran. Likewise, there is no other verse in the Quran that requires purity in order to touch the Quran.

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Deferring Matters of Islamic Law to Religious Scholars Is Not Permissible. Studying and Understanding the Quran is Required.

Following is proof that Muslims must study the Quran in an effort to understand it and that simply deferring matters of Islamic to other people, e.g. the Ulama, is not allowed.

Is it better to memorize the Quran or to read the Quran?

Many Muslims go through the huge effort of memorizing the Quran, even if they don’t speak Arabic. In general, many Muslims are also very impressed to hear of someone who has memorized the entire Quran. Sadly, when you ask these people if they understand what they memorized, they say they don’t understand it. In other words, many of these people have managed to memorize the sounds of the Arabic Quran without understanding the meaning of what they’ve spent so much time trying to memorize. According to verse 2:2, the Quran is a guide for people who believe in God.

ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ
This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah – (2:2)

And according to verse 47:24, the Quran should be studied and understood.

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا
Then do they not study / think deeply about / understand (yatadabbaruna) the Qur’an, or are there locks upon [their] hearts? (47:24)

While there is nothing wrong with memorizing the Quran, it should be clear that understanding the meaning of the Quran should be a priority. After all, how can you be guided by a book that contains guidance if you don’t understand what you are reading, let alone have memorized?

Is it better to read the Arabic Quran or a translation?

Many non-Arabic-speaking Muslims diligently read the Arabic Quran throughout their lives. Sadly, most of them have no idea of the meaning of the words they read. As such, it doesn’t seem fitting to even say that they are “reading” the Quran since “reading” implies an understanding of the words being read. As such, a possibly more appropriate description of their actions is that they are “making the sounds of the Arabic Quran.” The word Qur’an is an Arabic word that translates to “Reading” in English. It is called as such because it’s supposed to be read. In addition to reading it, God expects you to think deeply about it and understand it (47:24).

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا
Then do they not study / think deeply about / understand (yatadabbaruna) the Qur’an, or are there locks upon [their] hearts? (47:24)

God makes it clear in 2:2: that the Quran is a guide.

ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ
This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah – (2:2)

Obviously, in order to be “guided”, you need to understand the meaning of the guide. And obviously, you can understand a guide if you don’t understand the language of that guide. Therefore, it should be obvious that non-Arabic speakers will benefit most from reading a translation of the Quran to satisfy verse 47:24 and be “guided.” People don’t magically get guidance by reading a book they don’t understand. If one feels it important to read the Arabic Quran, they can read both the Arabic version and a translated version side by side.

Are you allowed to sing the Quran?

Many Muslims think that it is better to recite the Quran with a certain intonation. The resulting effect can be somewhat like they are singing a song with or without instruments.

Here’s an example without instruments.

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Watch on YouTube

And here’s an example with instruments.

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Watch on YouTube

There doesn’t appear to be any ruling against singing the Quran. However, one should keep in mind the purpose of the Quran and what God expects everyone to do with it. As stated earlier, the Quran is a book of guidance (2:2) and God expects everyone to read, understand, and think deeply about it (47:24).


The Quran forbids you from following or believing in something without understanding it

In verse 17:36, God clearly tells people not to follow and believe in what they have no knowledge of. For example, if someone tells you that Muslim men are forbidden from wearing gold and silk, then you shouldn’t just believe what they say, regardless of whether they are learned scholars or imams. You must know what you are doing so that you are not guilty of becoming a blind believer. Examples of blind believers are idol worshippers of the time of Prophet Abraham. When Abraham proved to them, including his own father, that the idols were not God, and told them to stop worshipping them, they refused saying that they wanted to continue worshipping whatever their forefathers worshipped, even though they had no proof that their idols were God.

وَلَا تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۚ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَٰئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولًا
And do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge. Indeed, the hearing, the sight and the heart – about all those [one] will be questioned. (17:36)

As a Muslim, do you have to understand the Quran?

Many Muslims believe that they can just read the Quran without understanding and thinking deeply about its verses. However, God says in verse 47:24 that you are expected to study and think deeply about its verses. The expectation that you understand the Quran is so serious that not doing it is as if your heart was locked up. This expectation is very rational. After all, if you don’t understand the Quran, then your practice of Islam would be based on assumption rather than proof. Furthermore, since verse 17:36 forbids you from blindly following what people tell you without your own personal knowledge or proof of a matter, one obvious way to acquire knowledge of Islamic matters is by studying and thinking deeply about the Quran.

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا
Then do they not study / think deeply about / understand the Qur’an, or are there locks upon [their] hearts? (47:24)

Note the keyword “yatadabbaruun” in this verse which is defined in the Edward Lane’s Lexicon as follows (highlighted).


God forbids people from following any law except God’s laws in the Quran

This is understandable and is proven in verse 6:114. The Quran is the word of God. Other books, e.g. the book of Prophet Muhammad’s sayings (hadith), are not from God but from humans (e.g. indirectly via a chain of people who claim they heard Muhammad say something). Muhammad is not God. Muhammad has no right or authority to make Islamic law. And God never gave Muhammad the authority to make Islamic law as we will prove below.

أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْتَغِي حَكَمًا وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكِتَابَ مُفَصَّلًا
[Say], “Then is it other than Allah I should seek as judge while it is He who has revealed to you the Book explained in detail?” … (6:114)

Whoever judges by other than the Quran, they are wrongdoers and Kafir (disbelievers)

Many people, usually very religious people, like to tell others that something is haram. Unfortunately, their justification of their statements is based on the supposed sayings of Prophet Muhammad (hadith) and not the Quran. For example, some people tell others that men are forbidden from wearing gold and silk. This information is found in the hadith but you will never find it in the Quran. According to verse 5:45, these people who judge by the hadith think that they are doing the right thing and are very religious but in actuality, God considers them wrongdoers.

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
… And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the disbelievers. (5:45)

In addition to being wrongdoers, in verse 5:44 God even considers them to be disbelievers (kafir). This verse indicates that

  • God sent down the Torah
  • The prophets, Jewish rabbis and scholars used it to judge the Jews

There is no mention of the man-made Jewish Talmud book containing supposed sayings (hadith) of prophet Moses nor opinions of rabbis to be used in place of or in conjunction with the Torah for matters of Jewish law. The same, obviously, would apply to the Quran.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to Allah ] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah, and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the disbelievers. (5:44)

Regarding matters of religion, do not follow or believe in hadith besides the Quran

Verses 45:6 and 77:50 should be sufficient proof for everyone that only the Quran, which is God’s sayings (hadith) should be followed and believed in. Any saying (hadith) after that should not be believed in let alone followed as supplementary or overriding laws in the Quran.

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ
These are the verses of God which We recite to you in truth. Then in what statement after God and His verses will they believe? (45:6)
فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُونَ
Then in what statement after it (the Qur’an) will they believe? (77:50)

Related articles

Proof That the Quran Is Complete and That the Hadith Books Are Not Needed

Following is proof that the Quran alone is sufficient and complete for the purposes of Islamic guidance and law. Consequently, the hadith books are not needed to supplement or clarify the Quran.

The Quran is complete

Fortunately, we don’t need to guess whether verse 31:27 suggests that the Quran is complete. God admits in verses 6:115 and 6:38 that the Quran is complete. Also, common sense says that God is perfect. Therefore, why would God send down an incomplete Quran? Was God too busy that He couldn’t finish the Quran? Obviously not. Did God say in the Quran that because the Quran is incomplete, we have to figure out the missing parts from Prophet Muhammad’s sayings (hadith)? Obviously not.

و َتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقًا وَعَدْلًا ۚ لَّا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
And the word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can alter His words, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing. (6:115)
وَمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلَّا أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُم ۚ مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الْكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ
And there is no creature on [or within] the earth or bird that flies with its wings except [that they are] communities like you. We have not neglected in the Register a thing. Then unto their Lord they will be gathered. (6:38)

The Quran is fully detailed (fussilat) of all things

Not only is the Quran complete, but it’s also detailed.

أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْتَغِي حَكَمًا وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكِتَابَ مُفَصَّلًا
[Say], “Then is it other than Allah I should seek as judge while it is He who has revealed to you the Book explained in detail?” (6:114)
لَقَدْ كَانَ فِي قَصَصِهِمْ عِبْرَةٌ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ ۗ مَا كَانَ حَدِيثًا يُفْتَرَىٰ وَلَٰكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ
There was certainly in their stories a lesson for those of understanding. Never was the Qur’an a narration invented, but a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of all things and guidance and mercy for a people who believe. (12:111)
كِتَابٌ فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
A Book whose verses have been detailed, an Arabic Qur’an for a people who know, (41:3)
الر ۚ كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ آيَاتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ
Alif, Lam, Ra. [This is] a Book whose verses are perfected and then presented in detail from [one who is] Wise and Acquainted. (11:1)

The Quran provides its own explanation (ahsan tafsir)

Not only is the Quran complete and detailed, but it also provides its own explanation (tafsir) of things and it is the best explanation (tafsir).

وَلَا يَأْتُونَكَ بِمَثَلٍ إِلَّا جِئْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَأَحْسَنَ تَفْسِيرًا
And they do not come to you with an argument except that We bring you the truth and the best explanation. (25:33)

The Quran is sufficient as a book of guidance.

No other book, e.g. the hadith, is necessary to complement the Quran as God indicates that the Quran alone is sufficient.

أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِهِمْ أَنَّا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَرَحْمَةً وَذِكْرَىٰ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ
And is it not sufficient for them that We revealed to you the Book which is recited to them? Indeed in that is a mercy and reminder for a people who believe. (29:51)

The fact that the Quran is sufficient all by itself is further indicated in verses 17:45-46. Note the emphasis of the Quran being sufficient on its own with the use of the word “alone”.

وَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ جَعَلْنَا بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ حِجَابًا مَّسْتُورًا
And when you recite the Qur’an, We put between you and those who do not believe in the Hereafter a concealed partition. (17:45)
وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا ۚ وَإِذَا ذَكَرْتَ رَبَّكَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَحْدَهُ وَلَّوْا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِهِمْ نُفُورًا
And We have placed over their hearts coverings, lest they understand it, and in their ears deafness. And when you mention your Lord in the Qur’an alone, they turn back in aversion. (17:46)

God never runs out of words

Many people seem to think that the Quran is incomplete and therefore, believe that Prophet Muhammad’s sayings (hadith) complete the Quran. According to verse 31:27, God never runs out of words. Therefore, God could have written more words in the Quran to explain things to people. But since God didn’t write more than what’s in the Quran, He must have considered the Quran complete.

وَلَوْ أَنَّمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مِن شَجَرَةٍ أَقْلَامٌ وَالْبَحْرُ يَمُدُّهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ سَبْعَةُ أَبْحُرٍ مَّا نَفِدَتْ كَلِمَاتُ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
And if whatever trees upon the earth were pens and the sea [was ink], replenished thereafter by seven [more] seas, the words of Allah would not be exhausted. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. (31:27)

The best hadith (statement) is God’s statement (the Quran)

In verse 39:23, God says that the best saying / statement (hadith) is God’s hadith. So why would anyone want to follow some other hadith, e.g. via Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidzhi, etc?

اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُّتَشَابِهًا مَّثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ
Allah has sent down the best statement: a consistent Book wherein is reiteration. …(39:23)

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Prayer Among Jews, Christians, and Muslims – A Quranic Analysis

People Prayed Before Muhammad’s Time

Many Muslims believe that the Islamic prayer began with Muhammad. However, below is proof that people prayed Islamically much before Muhammad was even born.

Additionally, many Muslims argue that the Quran is incomplete because it doesn’t explain how to pray and therefore the hadith are required to clarify the shortcomings of the Quran. This argument is invalid because

  1. God says the Quran is complete (6:115) (6:38)
  2. God says the Quran is fully detailed of all things (6:114) (12:111) (41:3) (11:1)
  3. God says the Quran is clarification of all things (16:89)
  4. God taught Abraham how to pray (21:73). Ever since then, people already knew how to pray and therefore God didn’t need to explain in the Quran how to do it again.
  5. God told Muhammad to establish prayer and give zakah in Quran chapter 73. This is the 3rd chapter that was revealed to Muhammad. The first and second chapters that were revealed to Muhammad were chapters 96 and 68. Neither one of these three chapters explain to Muhammad how to pray. That makes sense because people at the time (and since prophet Abraham) already knew how to pray.

Prophet Ibrahim, Lot, Isaac and Jacob prayed

God said, “O fire, be coolness and safety upon Abraham.” … And We delivered him (Abraham) and Lot to the land which We had blessed for the worlds. And We gave him Isaac and Jacob in addition, and all [of them] We made righteous. And We made them leaders guiding by Our command. And We inspired to them the doing of good deeds, establishment of prayer, and giving of zakah; and they were worshippers of Us. (21:69 – 21:73)

Prophet Ishmael instructed his people to pray

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ … وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
And mention in the Book, Ishmael. Indeed, he was true to his promise, and he was a messenger and a prophet. And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and zakah and was to his Lord pleasing. (2:40 – 2:43)

The Children of Israel (Jews) prayed

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ … وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
O Children of Israel, … establish prayer and give zakah and bow with those who bow [in worship and obedience]. (2:40 – 2:43)

Maryam (Mary), Mother of Prophet Jesus, prayed

يَا مَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِي لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِي وَارْكَعِي مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
“O Mary! Be obedient to your Lord and prostrate and bow down with those who bow down” (3:43)

The phrase “bow with those that bow” is clearly a reference to congregation prayer such as the Friday Dhuhr prayer.

Prophet Jesus prayed

وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا
And He has made me (Jesus) blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive. (19:31)

People prayed at the Kaaba

وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَن لَّا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
And [mention, O Muhammad], when We designated for Abraham the site of the House (Kaaba), [saying], “Do not associate anything with Me and purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who stand [in prayer] and those who bow and prostrate. (22:26)

Many other people before Muhammad’s time prayed

In verses 19:58-59, we are told that God blessed many prophets before Muhammad and that after them, some generations stopped praying. This indicates that they did know how to pray.

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ۚ إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا
Those were the ones upon whom God bestowed favor from among the prophets of the descendants of Adam and of those We carried [in the ship] with Noah, and of the descendants of Abraham and Israel, and of those whom We guided and chose. When the verses of the Most Merciful were recited to them, they fell in prostration and weeping. But there came after them successors who neglected prayer and pursued desires; so they are going to meet evil. (19:58-59)

Example prayer form before Muhammad’s time

In 2:43, the Children of Israel (Jews) were told to pray. According to Hayim H. Donin in his book titled “To Pray As A Jew“, we see diagrams as shown below describing the ancient way Jews prayed. Unsurprisingly, the way they prayed is very similar to how Muslims today pray, even though Jews today no longer pray the way ancient Jews prayed.

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It is interesting to learn from this book that Jews also wash before praying (like ablution / wudhu for Muslims) and have a call for prayer (like the adhan for Muslims).

People didn’t and don’t learn how to pray from the hadith

Many people argue that Islam originated with Muhammad and that the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad are necessary to explain the details of prayer which are missing from the Quran. However, as we have proven above,

  • (Submission) Islam originated with Abraham
  • Muhammad was instructed to follow the religion of Abraham
  • People prayed ever since the time of Prophet Abraham

Logically, God didn’t go into detail to describe how to pray because people already knew how to pray ever since Abraham’s time. Just like people nowadays learn to pray from the practice being passed on from generation to generation, that too happened since Abraham’s time. No one both past and present learn to pray by reading the hadith.

Did you learn to pray from reading the hadith or did you learn from your parents or teachers?

Quran-Follower (Muslim) Prayer

Submitters who follow the Quran (Muslims) are supposed to pray 5 times a day. Following is what they say.

Torah-Follower (Jewish) Prayer

Submitters who follow the Torah (Jews) usually pray 2 times a day. Following, known as the Shema, is what they say.

שְׁמַע, יִשְׂרָאֵל: יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ, יְהוָה אֶחָד.וְאָהַבְתָּ, אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, בְּכָל-לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל-נַפְשְׁךָ, וּבְכָל-מְאֹדֶךָ.וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם–עַל-לְבָבֶךָ.וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ, וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם, בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ, וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ.וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת, עַל-יָדֶךָ; וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת, בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ.וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל-מְזֻזוֹת בֵּיתֶךָ, וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ.וְהָיָה, אִם-שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל-מִצְוֺתַי, אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם, הַיּוֹם–לְאַהֲבָה אֶת-יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם, וּלְעָבְדוֹ, בְּכָל-לְבַבְכֶם, וּבְכָל-נַפְשְׁכֶם.וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר-אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ, יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ; וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ, וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ.וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ, לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ; וְאָכַלְתָּ, וְשָׂבָעְתָּ.הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם, פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם; וְסַרְתֶּם, וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים, וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם, לָהֶם.וְחָרָה אַף-יְהוָה בָּכֶם, וְעָצַר אֶת-הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא-יִהְיֶה מָטָר, וְהָאֲדָמָה, לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת-יְבוּלָהּ; וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה, מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה, אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה, נֹתֵן לָכֶם.וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת-דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה, עַל-לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל-נַפְשְׁכֶם; וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל-יֶדְכֶם, וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם.וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת-בְּנֵיכֶם, לְדַבֵּר בָּם, בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ, וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ.וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל-מְזוּזוֹת בֵּיתֶךָ, וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ.לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם, וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם, עַל הָאֲדָמָה, אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם–כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם, עַל-הָאָרֶץ.וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר.דַּבֵּר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם, וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל-כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם, לְדֹרֹתָם; וְנָתְנוּ עַל-צִיצִת הַכָּנָף, פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת.וְהָיָה לָכֶם, לְצִיצִת, וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת-כָּל-מִצְוֺת יְהוָה, וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם; וְלֹא-תָתוּרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם, וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם, אֲשֶׁר-אַתֶּם זֹנִים, אַחֲרֵיהֶם.לְמַעַן תִּזְכְּרוּ, וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֶת-כָּל-מִצְוֺתָי; וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים, לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם.אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם, אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם, לֵאלֹהִים: אֲנִי, יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם.
Deuteronomy 6:4–9

4 Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one.

5 And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.

6 And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;

7 and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.

8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes.

9 And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates.

Deuteronomy 11:13–21

13 And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul,

14 that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil.

15 And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied.

16 Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;

17 and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you.

18 Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes.

19 And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.

20 And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;

21 that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth.

Numbers 15:37–41

37 And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:38 ‘Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue.

39 And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;

40 that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God.

41 I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’

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